文:本站原创 — 2016-3-21 10:20:37

普氏原羚:围栏圈住的是福是祸

在今天的内容开始之前,首先请大家看下面几张图片:

这些图片收集自网络,挂在围栏上的一具具动物尸体,是国家一级保护动物普氏原羚。

普氏原羚(Procapra przewalskii)是中国的特有物种,国家一级保护动物,曾广泛分布于中国西北部的内蒙古、甘肃、青海和新疆等省区。在过去的半个多世纪里,由于草地开垦和过度捕猎,普氏原羚栖息地大面积丧失,种群数量急剧下降,到20世纪90年代,学者们估计仅有约300只个体存活在青海湖周边的斑块状生境中,是这个地区自然生态系统中重要的一环。摄影 / 吴永林

        近日,关于普氏原羚“挂亡”于围栏的事件逐渐升温。据报道,有网友在社交平台上公布了上述图片,称在青海湖附近的甘子河乡和哈尔盖等地监测普氏原羚时,发现7只普氏原羚的尸体,并称“今年普氏原羚死亡十分严重”。随后有某微信公众号以《其实我们无心保护普氏原羚》为题“炮轰”相关主管部门,为“挂死”于围栏铁网上的普氏原羚喊冤,并鼓动网友支持该公众号宣传的民间的保护活动。

        时间再往前推,2016年元旦期间,就有民间环保人士在互联网上发文《不以拆除网围栏为核心的普氏原羚保护措施都是“耍流氓”》,呼吁拆除青海湖周边的围栏以提供给普氏原羚以宽松的生存环境。

        根据日前中新社的报道,青海省林业厅相关部门针对此事已经做出了回应:7只普氏原羚死亡时间最长的3个月以上,最短的在1个月之上,依据时间推断,排除一次性死亡的可能。对于普氏原羚的死亡原因,通过尸体来看,普氏原羚死因应该从遭遇天敌猎食和围栏刺丝挂死综合原因判断,死因难定。


 

普氏原羚的成年雄性长有标志性的向内弯曲对角(上图);下图为雌性亚成体,无角。摄影/张璐

        关于围栏的争论早已有之,这些围栏从何而来?它对包括普氏原羚在内的野生动物有怎样的影响?围栏的拆与不拆都有哪些方面影响因素?为此北京大学动物学博士,美国密西西比州立大学/孟菲斯动物园博士后张璐做出了相应的解释,她曾于2007年至2010年,在青海湖做普氏原羚研究。


        传统上,青海湖周边的牧民也游牧,普氏原羚和家畜生活在同一片草场上。20世纪90年代开始实施“畜草双承包”政策,围栏作为草地管理的重要手段被引入,用来明晰和界定草场产权,帮助牧民更细致地管理草场。比如,将最好的草场围起来作为家畜冬季的产羔场。结果是,对于普氏原羚来说目前已经不存在“没有围栏”的草地。它们生活在围栏隔成的网格里,区别只是网格的大小,或者说围栏密度的高低。


普氏原羚曾经广泛分布在中国西北,如今偏安青海湖。制图/张璐

        对于普氏原羚来说,围栏并非不可逾越的障碍,它们可以跳过或者钻过围栏。然而每一次穿越都有风险,可能被刺丝刮伤,或被铁丝绞死。对个体的影响最终会反映到“种群分布”上,也就是它们在哪里出现、不在哪里出现。一旦动物在原有的某分布区消失,也就是不再出现,我们称为“局部灭绝”,或“区域性灭绝”。回顾普氏原羚的历史,五十年间的大踏步退缩,就是一连串的局部灭绝。

        影响普氏原羚的出现的因素是多重的,这些因素包括围栏密度、围栏高度、带刺丝围栏的比例、家畜密度、草地生物量、以及到牧民房屋的距离。张璐的研究结果显示,不管是春季还是夏季,围栏密度和围栏带刺丝比例都有显著的负面影响。也就是说,围栏密度越高,带刺丝围栏的比例越高,普氏原羚出现的概率就越低。至此可以肯定地说,围栏确实干扰了普氏原羚的分布。


正在跳跃围栏的普氏原羚 摄影/吴永林

        北京大学另一位动物学博士刘佳子的研究显示:“围栏平均高111厘米,成年普氏原羚跳过这一高度的成功率仅为20%。不仅如此,52%的围栏顶部带有刺丝,带刺丝围栏的平均高度为123厘米,成年普氏原羚跳过这一高度仅有6%的成功率”,“当围栏高度由118厘米降至78厘米时,成年普氏原羚跳过的成功率从10%上升至90%。当围栏高度为71厘米时,成年普氏原羚跳过的成功率为95%”,“大多数幼仔可以通过从下往上一至三道铁丝的高度(6–32厘米),两条水平铁丝间的宽度不小于44厘米”。

        大面积拆除围栏,可能成本太高、不太现实。那么去掉刺丝呢?围栏高度降低一点呢?普氏原羚能够选择低矮的围栏通过,如果大面积改造围栏成本还是太高,那么在局部建立围栏矮一点的通道呢?

        在中国西部,没有哪种动物研究得比普氏原羚更清楚,也没有哪种动物比它们更容易从人类的保护措施中获益。只要拆掉或改造一些围栏,就能显著改善普氏原羚的生存状况。

        当然,除了围栏,还有无处不在的牲畜和日益拥挤的旅游。后两者是当地社区的主要收入来源,对围栏的调整还是相对简单的。在中国,政府部门拥有最多的资源、最大的力量。而面对濒临灭绝的普氏原羚,农牧和林业部门政策矛盾、相互推诿,保护措施动作缓慢。

        当普氏原羚消失在遥远的青海湖畔,我们可能感受不到任何变化,而上千年万的生物演化留给我们的无可替代的自然遗产,将永远丧失美丽的一环。

撰文/张璐

编辑/山水自然保护中心 高向宇

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近日关于普氏原羚“挂亡”于围栏的事件逐渐升温,针对草原围栏与普氏原羚的讨论也一直没有停歇,面对围栏我们真的无能为力吗?

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