文:本站原创 — 2016-3-16 15:11:55

这一次我们说好了:接受气候变化的现实 也准备好改变它

本次巴黎协定是长期气候谈判工作里程碑式的成就,也意味着全球应对气候变化跨入新的时代。值得关注的是,本次协议显著地关注了气候变化适应及损失的内容,对气候变化带来损失和影响最大的脆弱地区和人群给予了更多的关注。

气候变化对野生动物尤其是在栖息地已经濒临破碎的物种会带来负面的影响,例如疾病、迁徙和食物变化,因此保护其栖息地和减少对保护的威胁至关重要。


气候变化的均温升高,降水模式变化等对于中国农村,尤其是依赖气候的农业也有不同程度的影响,气候变化可能导致的灾害和极端天气事件也为中国的城市和农村人口带来更多风险。建议通过对于这些风险的防范和补偿,以及通过生态系统保护的方式减少气候风险,增强适应能力。

从一个生物多样性与生态系统保护的机构的角度,我们提倡:

1. 尽可能保持生态环境的完整,保护野生动物栖息地,并防止出现任何的人为破坏环境造成的排放,同时应将生态建设和减排工作协同推进,在景观尺度上使用生态手段“经济地”开展碳汇和减排;

2. 建立适用于不同尺度的碳核算体系和排放清单编制方法,实现对对减排承诺的量化审核;

3. 不仅在发达地区和城市中,也应该在能源需求 并未完全挖掘的中国西部乡村推进清洁能源技术,减少对化石燃料的依赖,建立可持续循环能源系统(可持续森林产品),并扩大可再生能源,用于需要改善经济落后地区人口和脆弱生态系统地区;

4. 重视以生态系统为基础的气候变化解决方案在气候变化的双重作用(即是减缓也是适应);

5. 尊重本土的气候传统知识和适应经验,充分考虑边缘社会群体的需求;

6. 推进社会和企业资金更多地参与气候变化公益项目,多角度地采取行动。


 

在这重大的历史时刻,包括山水在内的15家中国NGO联合发表回应称,在促成《巴黎协定》的过程中,中国发挥了不可或缺的关键的建设作用,中国NGO已经做好准备,希望在过去几年积累的基础上,在国际、国内两个层面的气候治理中发挥建设性作用。回应全文如下:

《巴黎协定》是人类应对气候变化史和全球治理历史上的重要里程碑。两周的谈判,承载的是过去六年中全球气候治理进程从拯救多边进程、重塑政治互信到重建机制设计的持续推进的最终成果。《巴黎协定》是一座桥梁,连接在发达国家与发展中国家之间,连接旧的气候秩序与新的气候秩序。 巴黎协定也是新的起点,为缓解气候变化的实际行动带来积极的希望。《巴黎协定》是全体缔约国通过的具有法律约束力的国际协议,并将气候公正、人类权益、妇女权利、减贫灭贫、食物安全、代际公平等议题纳入其中,考虑到了最脆弱的地区。《巴黎协定》明确提出了将升温控制在远低于2摄氏度范围内,并向1.5摄氏度努力,同时要求全球温室气体排放尽快达到峰值、并在本世纪下半叶达到温室气体净零排放的目标,这意味着人类最早将在本世纪中结束对化石能源的依赖。《巴黎协定》中有不尽如人意之处,但依然代表着进步,接下来的行动更加重要。

 

由于人口、经济体量、碳排放和能源消耗的总量巨大,中国在全球气候治理中有着举足轻重的战略影响。在促成《巴黎协定》的过程中,中国发挥了不可或缺的关键的建设性作用,中国按时提交的INDC目标和关于碳减排的承诺,为许多国家做出了积极的榜样,为发达国家、发展中国家之间在巴黎找到共识空间搭建起沟通的桥梁。这既是中国在气候外交领域领导力的体现,同时也为中国自己气候行动上更进一步创造出新的空间。在气候变化方面迈进的这一大步,也折射出中国走向生态文明的思考与决心。

《巴黎协定》意味着新行动的开始。即将开始的“十三•五”,是中国迈向生态文明、低碳发展的关键一步,借着国际减排共识的东风,中国可以加快前进的步伐。建议“十三五”积极控制煤炭总量、促进可再生能源的大比例利用,并开展全国范围的碳排放总量控制尝试。中国非常有望在2020年实现煤炭消费在总能耗中占比从2014年的66%下降到2020年的57%,提早实现碳排放峰值。这会加速对空气污染的有效治理,协同效应潜力巨大。同时,应进一步明确国家适应战略的落实,尤其在贫穷地区的适应工作。在扶贫过程中应充分考虑气候变化带来的影响,将适应、减缓和减防灾的视角纳入到国家扶贫战略规划和实施中。在南南合作方面的承诺也有待更细节地落实,让有需要的发展中国家的最贫穷脆弱人群真正受益。在快速城市化过程中保障低碳发展,推动城乡低碳交通、低碳社区、绿色生活和可持续消费体系有效建设。此外,还应关注生物多样性保护,并向公众,特别是青年人,宣传气候变化相关的知识,鼓励中国青年积极参与应对气候变化的行动中,培养青年人在应对气候变化方面的行动力和领导力。中国NGO非常期待,《巴黎协定》的包容性和开放性的精神能体现在不同层面的治理中,在各方面得到最好的应用。中国NGO已经做好准备,希望在过去几年积累的基础上,在国际、国内两个层面的气候治理中也能发挥力所能及的建设性作用。

中国NGO,包括从事气候变化的中国本土NGO和在中国开展气候变化工作的国际NGO,其中,参与此次联名的有:

绿满江淮、创绿中心、(中国)青年应对气候变化行动网络、山水自然保护中心、自然之友、全球环境研究所、中国国际民间组织合作促进会、公众环境研究中心、阿拉善SEE生态协会、北京地球村环境教育中心、中国民间气候变化行动网络、自然资源保护协会、世界自然基金会、绿色和平、乐施会

山水气候变化方面的工作:

1.使用森林碳汇项目推动栖息地植被恢复和当地社区增收,实现森林生态效益;

2.推广节能减排的设施例如节能灶等,帮助中国农村减少对化石燃料的依赖,绕开“先污染后治理”的老路。

3.通过改善饮水措施和保护水源林的方式,基于生态系统适应气候变化的灾害。

4.调查和搜集青藏高原和西南山地少数民族地区对气候变化的观察和适应传统文化和知识,研究与生态保护之间的联系。

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碳汇与水源保护项目

本次巴黎协定是长期气候谈判工作里程碑式的成就,也意味着全球应对气候变化跨入新的时代。本次协议显著地关注了气候变化适应及损失的内容,对气候变化带来损失和影响最大的脆弱地区和人群给予了更多的关注。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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