文:本站原创 — 2016-3-14 16:30:42

温室星球的求生难题

       从原始太阳星云中初生不久的地球上,冥古宙的大气刚刚形成,地球从一个炙热岩浆球冷却固化。原生代的地球上就出现了最初的生命形式,这时候已经距离地球诞生6亿年了。

    自从生命从40亿年前诞生,就开始在这颗星球上挣扎求生。在超级大陆罗迪尼亚大陆渐渐形成的过程中,植物、动物和真菌这时候开始分工,10亿年前,长得像绿藻的第一颗多细胞植物诞生。1亿年后,多细胞动物也诞生了。7亿7000万年前,地球陷入冰封时代,生命陷入雪球世界。

    之后,随着火山喷发的二氧化碳的温室效益,地球开始变暖,我们进入温室星球时代。生命在之后的温室星球上冲破了极端恶劣环境的围困,在经历了20多次生物灭绝事件之后,成功的复苏和发展到现在。

    说到生物灭绝事件,人类对温室星球上发生的最惨烈的5次灭绝都做出了估计(wiki),每次的大灭绝都导致了地球生物物种的种群结构发生了翻天覆地的变化。

    那么是什么导致了这些灾难,让生命经历灭绝和复苏。虽然原因有很多解释和猜想,但是归结一下,可以分为几大类:气候变化、大规模火山爆发、外来星体撞击。离我们最近的一次灭绝被认为是小行星撞击的结果,直接导致称霸地球的恐龙灭绝。

    美国科普作家丽莎白•科尔伯特在她的一本书上写到“今天,另一颗小行星正在撞向地球,它就是人类”,这本书的名字也相当具有争议《第六次大灭绝》。这本书没有像其他倡导保护生物的书一样为地球上的生物请命,而是选择借由五种已经灭绝的物种和七种濒危物种的故事,将“第六次大灭绝”历历在目地呈现。

    2013年世界自然保护联盟在《全球物种红色名录》中列出了世界上的濒危物种,总数达到了20934个,其中就有我们熟悉的生活在长江的江豚,它的家族经历了十万余年,领地曾经有1700多公里长,而现在数量仅剩一千,而它面临的很有可能就是白暨豚的覆辙。


全球生物面临风险统计   图片来源:IUCN

    物种灭绝的过程实在是太过宏大和复杂,我们这里虽然没法展开讲述,但我们尝试从一些小方面来展现这个过程,那就是气候变化下生命的生存危机。

    上图说明的是一些物种在气候变化下可能的迁移的限度,当气候变化的速度超过物种可移动的最大速度,那么该物种就会面临灭绝。从上图可见,树木每十年可移动(森林边界延伸)的距离上限是15公里每年(注意这是极限),一半来说是在1-2公里,而在不同的排放情景(RCP)下,其适应的气候移动速度在右侧标示出来,可见中等排放情景(RCP4.5以上)下,绝大部分树木将会普遍遇到无法跟踪气候变暖的情景,从而导致面临严重的生存危机。而这些森林生态系统如果退化或者消失,将会对其生态系统内的生物造成巨大的威胁。

    当然像食草动物和食肉动物这类可以长途迁移的物种,在适应气候变化上貌似显示出了超常的能力,但是我们需要注意的是,作为食物链的基础的生产者在面临生存危机的时候,这个生态系统的消费者都会受到影响,在未能找到合适的替代食物时,食草动物将会面临危机,而由于栖息地的消失和人类的干扰,使得动物的迁移也非常困难,食肉动物依然会受相同因素影响,所以没有哪个物种在气候变化下是安全的。

    每一个盛极一时的物种都会从地球上消失,而现在却有那么多物种可能会灭绝,我们该采取什么样的顺序呢?科尔伯特建议说:一些动物很有魅力,有名且让人心生怜悯。熊猫会比虫子、昆虫更吸引人。好在大熊猫需要很大面积的栖息地,保护大型的动物的时候有可能同时会保护一些我们甚至不认识的小动物。除了在人工环境帮助濒危动物繁殖,科尔伯特提出,还应该要保护动物的栖息地,以便让更多的动物们迁徙过去,在那里生存和进化。

    “在那里进化,幸运的话它们将能够适应变化的环境。”科尔伯特认为。


《第六次大灭绝》


伊丽莎白•科尔伯特

    当谈到出版这本书的初衷,科尔伯特表示:“人类加速发展,改变了社会、气候、海洋等一切资源,我并不是想去探讨怎么做是好人,或者坏人,我只是专注于改变。比如我的书中并没有特别针对污染而做表述,但是出版后却从侧面却引发了民众的重视,我只希望看到改变。”

文 / 山水自然保护中心 汪晖

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美国科普作家丽莎白?科尔伯特在她的一本书上写到:“今天,另一颗小行星正在撞向地球,它就是人类”。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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