文:本站原创 — 2015-7-16 17:30:35

三江源“灭鼠”之知识帖:什么是关键种

 
  昨天我们提到,三江源地区已经开始大范围“灭鼠”,但研究显示,毒杀鼠兔反而会使生态系统更加脆弱,呼吁立即叫停。
 
  北京大学保护生物学博士生宋瑞玲在针对灭鼠所写的研究文章中说,鼠兔是青藏高原生态系统的关键种,鼠兔的消失可能导致其他物种的食物或栖息地的消失。“鼠兔决定了青藏高原生态系统中其他许多物种的存在和数量,对于维持生态系统的正常运转和较高的生物多样性有不可替代的作用。”
 
  什么是关键种?《保护生物学简明教程》中有专门的一节进行了介绍,一起来读读书、涨涨知识吧:
 
  在群落内,某些具有相似生态特征的物种或物种集团有决定其他物种在群落内生存的能力(见下图),这些物种被称为关键种(keystone species)。关键种对群落组成的影响,要远远大于依据它们的个体数量或生物量预测的影响(Mumby et al.2006)。保护关键种或关键种组是重点,因为这些物种的丧失可能导致许多其他物种的丧失。
 
  配图:关键种决定着一个生物群落里大量其他物种的生存。关键种虽然只占群落组成的很小比例(总生物量的很小一部分),但是一个关键种的丧失,可能导致群落组成发生重大改变。群落内稀有种的生物量最小,不会有太大的影响。优势种占群落生物量的很大比例,相应的会影响到其他许多物种。然而,有些物种,虽然既常见又具有高的生物量,但对群落构成的影响则相对较小(引自Power et al. 1996 )
 
  一个生态系统内的顶级捕食者可能是关键种,因为食肉动物常常会显著影响食草动物种群的数量。虽然捕食者只占群落中所有物种的很小一部分,但是清除少数捕食 者就有可能引起植被的显著变化和生物多样性的重大损失,这种现象称为营养级联(trophic cascade)。例如,在一些地方因为人类狩猎等原因导致狼和其他食肉动物的灭绝,从而引起鹿群的急剧增加。鹿群的过度取食又造成许多草本、灌木植物群 落的严重退化。反过来,植被的消失又危害到鹿群和其他食草动物包括昆虫的生存。同样,植被覆盖的降低可能会引起土壤侵蚀,继而导致土壤动物和微生物物种的丧失。一旦将狼群重新引入生态系统,整个系统的营养关系可能会慢慢地重建(Beyer et al. 2007)。
 
  有些关键种的活动强烈地改变着自然环境,因此关键种常有“生态系统工程师”之称(Beyer et al. 2006)。例如,当洪水危及温带森林时,海狸会建造水坝,为许多物种创建新的沼泽栖息地。
 
  关键种的消失有可能导致一系列的灭绝事件发生,称为灭绝级联效应(extinction cascade)。灭绝级联效应会进一步导致生态系统退化,使得各营养级上的生物多样性大大降低。在热带森林生态系统内,榕树通常被认为是关键种,因为它 们的果期很长,是许多鸟类和哺乳动物重要的食物来源。如果由于采伐或外来病菌感染等原因引起榕树种群突然急剧下降,榕树的损失不仅会影响到取食榕果的鸟类 和哺乳动物,最终也会影响到靠捕食这些鸟类和哺乳动物的食肉动物。总之,关键种的丧失对于整个食物链的影响是灾难性的。因此,在热带地区进行择伐时,榕树 和其他重要的产果树种应受到重点保护,而在群落内一些不属关键种的树种可以少量择伐,对群落的生物多样性影响较小。
 
  鼠兔是青藏高原生态系统的关键种
 
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标签:保护地 三江源
三江源

关键种决定着一个生物群落里大量其他物种的生存。关键种虽然只占群落组成的很小比例(总生物量的很小一部分),但是一个关键种的丧失,可能导致群落组成发生重大改变。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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