文:本站原创 — 2015-7-16 17:10:47

三江源“灭鼠”序幕拉开 必须叫停!

 
  根据青海日报昨日报道,1月18日青海省黄南州河南、泽库两县率先开展草原“鼠害防治”,三江源生态保护和建设二期工程“草原有害生物防控”项目拉开序幕。截至3月17日,三江源地区已完成“鼠害防治”118.3万公顷,完成计划任务的38%。
 
  但研究显示,毒杀鼠兔不仅不能控制其数量,不利于退化草地恢复,还会造成对其它物种的二次伤害,反而使生态系统更加脆弱。“鼠害防治”必须叫停。
 
  鼠兔并非草地退化的原因
 
  根据报道,三江源二期工程2014年度草原“有害生物防控”项目建设任务311.37万公顷(青海全省面积约为7200万公顷),涉及三江源区4州1市21县1镇4场,是三江源二期实施的第一个项目,主要开展“草原鼠害”防治。
 
 
  但北京大学保护生物学博士生宋瑞玲表示,研究表明鼠兔数量增多是草地退化的结果,而不是原因:由于草地退化,植被盖度降低,为鼠兔的生存和繁殖提供了更好的条件,导致鼠兔数量增多。在草地好的地方,鼠兔不会与家畜竞争食物,且种群数量受到控制。而在草地差的地方,鼠兔密度高,同时也有利于控制不可食植物的数量。因此毒杀鼠兔不利于草地恢复。
 
  灭鼠并不能控制鼠兔数量
 
  “毒杀鼠兔能急剧降低鼠兔密度,但如果不能完全去除,存活的鼠兔会大量繁殖,种群数量爆发式增长。”宋瑞玲介绍,一项在西藏那曲草地的研究显示,春天毒杀鼠兔后,其种群数量大幅度降低,然而由于高密度依赖增长率,夏天鼠兔数量急剧增加,到秋天鼠兔数量与春天毒杀之前没有显著差异。因此通过灭鼠来控制鼠兔数量收效甚微,灭鼠后鼠兔种群数量在一个繁殖季内就能恢复。
 
  在三江源访谈到的当地牧民,也多数表示灭鼠没有用,数量很快增加至跟灭鼠前一样,甚至更多。
 
 
  乔治.夏勒博士创作了《好鼠兔》系列寓言科普故事,他希望人们对青藏高原上的动物、植物、人以及他们之间和谐共存的关系产生真切了解。
 
  灭鼠会造成二次伤害
 
  将使生态系统更脆弱
 
  宋瑞玲称,鼠兔是青藏高原高寒草甸生态系统的关键种,鼠兔的消失可能导致其他物种的食物或栖息地的消失。毒杀鼠兔还会造成二次伤害,降低生物多样性,使生态系统更加脆弱。
 
  例如,毒杀鼠兔的同时,会毒杀其他一些数量稀少的鼠兔种或亚种,还会影响鸟类多样性和数量,特别是褐背拟地鸦等以鼠兔洞为巢穴的鸟类,以及以鼠兔为食物的高山秃鹫等猛禽。食肉动物如赤狐、藏狐、狼、棕熊等,也将因取食有毒鼠兔或缺少食物而减少。
 
  青海玛沁县发现大量高山兀鹫和秃鹫尸体
 
  果洛州玛沁县一所保护站的工作人员昨天反映,一个月前,县森林公安局在州府大武镇一个垃圾填埋场附近,发现大量动物尸体。经过辨认,动物尸体除了狐狸和20多只列入国家二级保护动物的高山兀鹫和秃鹫,另外还有20多只羊。
 
 
  玛沁县森林公安局发现20多只高山兀鹫和秃鹫的尸体
 
  “是不是因为灭鼠造成的呢?”他怀疑。据称,目前公安局方面正在核实此事。
 
  相关研究:
 
  北大博士生宋瑞玲:毒杀鼠兔不利于退化草地恢复
 
 
  赵翔:开展科学指导的生态保护
 
 
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标签:保护地 三江源
三江源

研究显示,毒杀鼠兔不仅不能控制其数量,不利于退化草地恢复,还会造成对其它物种的二次伤害,反而使生态系统更加脆弱。“鼠害防治”必须叫停。

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