文:本站原创 — 2015-7-16 16:17:01

熊耳村日记

  熊耳村一景 摄影:刘锡婷
 
  熊尔村位于距离成都两百余公里的理县境内,是一个有500多村民的藏、羌、汉混居村子,共分四个组。这里是典型的干旱河谷地貌,但在小范围内还保存有完好的森林。虽然熊尔村是理县有名的贫困村,但民风淳朴,集体事业还维持传统的合作习惯。

  熊尔村社区资源图 绘图:田犎 摄影:程淑玲
 
  在大约三四十年前,现在村里的活动中心还是当时的劳改农场。当时劳改人员在熊尔村主要工作就是砍伐木材供建设所需。成片的森林被砍伐,只留下村里传统上的神山和积肥山。村民认为神山上的一草一木都是神圣不容侵犯的,每月的初一十五还会自发为神山举行煨桑祈福活动。而积肥山则专门用于采集林下腐殖质肥田,同样不得砍伐一草一木。这样的风俗为村民留下了两片如今在当地难得一见的原始森林。
 
  三十年后的今天,虽然村里不再砍树且林业局经常组织栽树活动,但受干旱河谷气候影响以及一些人为干扰,熊尔村的森林资源未得到恢复,仍然只集中在哈尔木沟神山、积肥山上,以及海拔2900米以上人为活动较少的熊尔山上。
 
  熊尔村水源图 制图:中科院成都生物所 张远彬
 
  目前熊尔村的水源集中在哈尔木沟,这里是熊尔村森林保存最完整的的地方。多年前村里曾修建了一根水管,但现在已经不能满足村里的灌溉饮水需要。所以村里像水务局申请了新的工程,希望增加一条水管,缓解现在的用水压力。
 
  哈尔木沟这股水源对熊尔村来说至关重要,保存完好的森林便是水源的蓄水池,是熊尔村现在生活体系里不可或缺的部分。但随着农业发展势弱,精英外出,村里生产生活逐渐围绕公路重新布局,森林及水源对生活和生产的影响变弱,森林、水源、生活、生产之间的关系在村民的思维中渐渐割裂。村书记想把公路修上山顶,把哈尔木沟的水接引到九龙湖去,扩大九龙湖面积以开发旅游;很多村民为了提高经济收入敞放山羊,羊啃食集体林地幼苗导致村里集体林难恢复;村民现在种地使用化肥农药,哈尔木沟的堆肥林作渐渐不起作用可能存在被砍伐的威胁。
 
  墨大哥就负责八士安这个组的工作。墨大哥是熊尔村八士安小组的组长,也是村里的医生,同事还是集体林巡护队的一员。修建水管事关重大,村里今年开春翻地能否用上水浇地,就要看他们修的水管能否按时竣工了。为此,墨大哥每天忙前忙后,连巡山的工作都暂缓了一段时间。他告诉我们,如果进展顺利,今年耕地前大家就能用上新的水源。

  墨大哥陪同绘制社区资源图 摄影:刘锡婷
 
  墨大哥自理县推行集体林董事会管理制度以来,就被选为八士安组的巡护队员。他每个月坚持巡山,想要守住熊尔村剩下的集体林,这也是为村里守住赖以生存的水源。但光有森林和水的确不能满足村民的需求,所以得知理县林业局、山水自然保护中心来村里做考察,计划推动村里集体林保护与社区经济共同发展的时候,他非常配合,带考察组查看水源,介绍引水工程及村里现有的产业。他对未来的集体产业发展抱着期待,如果新的集体产业能帮助村民提高生活水平,同时又不破坏现有的自然资源,还能加强集体林保护,一举多得,这对熊尔村所有的村民来说都是一件好事。
 
  背景信息:
 
  2014年1月,山水与四川省林业厅、理县林业局达成三方合作意向,共同探索在集体公益林管护大背景下,集体林经营管理模式。熊尔村被选为模式探索的试点村。在集体公益林管护工作中,理县采取了在各村建立集体公益林管护董事会,分股不分山,基于保护成效发放管护资金的方式,使集体公益林管护的责权利得到了统一。这种方式在全国已属先进。但在社区层面上,怎么引导公益林管护与当地社区发展相结合,却是一个巨大的挑战。我们希望通过在熊尔村的试点实践,能够在理县已有基础上更进一步,真正实现保护与发展相协调发展的可持续模式。
 
  2014年2月21-24日,山水社区保护地团队、理县林业局、林业专家、农业专家共同参与,对熊尔村做了一个系统的可行性分析调查。调查历时4天,通过社区资源图、季节历、关键信息人访谈、问卷调查、实地踏勘等多种社区工作工具,全面了解熊尔村的自然状况及社会状况,通过初步分析,认为熊尔村有开展集体林可持续经营试点的可行性,未来项目工作包括:第一,共建社区保护发展基金,推动集体公益林保护与社区发展相结合;第二,完善熊尔村保护工作,加强集体林巡护;第三,发展集体经济,建议村里可以发展食用菌种殖及集体养蜂产业;第四,文化建设,提高社区凝聚力和恢复传统文化。
 
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西南山地

熊尔村位于距离成都两百余公里的理县境内,是一个有500多村民的藏、羌、汉混居村子,共分四个组。这里是典型的干旱河谷地貌,但在小范围内还保存有完好的森林。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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