文:宋文莉 — 2015-7-15 15:01:51

日本自然学校的生命教育与冒险教育

  “怎么借鉴日本自然学校理念?我认为是怎样来持续地来做这样一个事情。”2014年2月23日,雾霾中的北京积水潭西岸,从日本游学归来的山水自然保护中心“自然学堂”项目工作人员邹滔,在分享会尾声回答网友提问时说。
 
  从2013年11月起,邹滔与自然之友黄海琼、云南在地自然教育工作室宋文莉,作为自然学堂项目首批3名自然学校研修生,前往日本whole earth(简称 WENS)等自然学校游学。在分享会上,邹滔与黄海琼向到场的70多位网友讲述了在日本两个月的游学经历。
 
  邹滔说,全国我们接触和了解过的自然教育机构有100多家,但有很大一部分是NGO,还是按照传统的项目模式,“就是我要申请到一笔钱,做一个什么事儿, 更多需要考虑怎么用多方面的方式来让自然学校运行下去。”而日本的自然学校是同时以NPO、社会企业及其它的创新形式,一起来持续地做自然教育,这是一个 可以学习的方法。
 
 
  日本游学分享会现场,70多位网友把屋子挤得满满当当。
 
  “在日本有这样一个案例:问小孩鸡这种动物是怎么样的,结果孩子们想象的是,一块一块的鸡肉在地上跑,鱼应该是一片一片的生鱼片在水里游。”邹滔说,日本 自然学校注重生命教育,因为日本已经非常发达,现代化的生活导致了很多人和自然的距离越来越远,“最简单的表现比如不知肉从何来,以自我为中心导致这样一个结果。”
 
  那日本的自然学校怎样促进人和自然的链接?邹滔说,吃的东西和生活息息相关,从食物教育开始是一个非常好的切入点。比如whole earth露营课程的时候,就会让参加活动的孩子养鸡,每天照料动物,到最后这个动物成为他的食物、他身体的一部分。
 
  黄海琼则提到“雪地冬令营”活动中的生命教育:孩子们中午吃完牛肉,下午去牧场之前引导员会提问,牛能活十几年,牧场的牛只能活几年,为什么不能活那么长时间?它和人的关系是什么?人为什么要吃牛肉、喝牛奶?
 
 
  “教育一个孩子,你是希望他成长为听话的孩子,还是不听话的孩子?”在讲述雪地冬令营之前,黄海琼还抛出了这样一个问题。
 
  喂小牛、追踪动物痕迹、雪上运动会、寄宿牧民家、建雪屋……黄海琼说,雪地冬令营是冒险教育,14天里,这些小学一年级到初中一年级的日本孩子,进行了内 容丰富的关于生存能力的体验。“对于这些小孩来讲,这些活动超出了他的Czone(心理舒适区)”当你成长了,你的Czone也会长大。
 
  “其实我们忽略了一个问题,并不是让孩子成长为听别人讲话才行动的孩子,是希望他成长为大人。”有九年中小学教学经验的黄海琼,以雪地冬令营的故事回答自 己的提问:自然教育是助人成长,孩子从出生到成人的过程,给他们的应该是帮助,帮助他们成长,让他们成为自己,而不是成为一个听话的孩子。
 
  北京什么时候能办类似“雪地冬令营”的亲近自然的活动呢?这是不少网友关心的问题。黄海琼说,今年冬天会组团再去日本参加冬令营。不过如果总去日本,中国 孩子的受益人群会比较小,所以正计划在国内找到合适的场地,组织培训引导员,“比如说东北,只要有足够雪的地方,也可以做这样的活动。”
 
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自然学堂

邹滔说,全国我们接触和了解过的自然教育机构有100多家,但有很大一部分是NGO,还是按照传统的项目模式,“就是我要申请到一笔钱,做一个什么事儿, 更多需要考虑怎么用多方面的方式来让自然学校运行下去。”

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