文:王放图:王放 — 2015-6-29 16:22:23

你不得不知道的森林

 
 
  人类对于森林的感情,植根于我们的内心深处,是我们从原始祖先那里继承的最真诚朴实的依恋。
 
  无论任何人看到莽莽群山被高大的冷杉林覆盖,或者看到秋天辽阔平原上成片的桦树林在风中沙沙作响,都会在心底油然而生一种舒畅感和安全感。实际上这是一种对我们原始家园的眷念——森林是我们诞生的摇篮,也是我们最初的居住地和时间最长的栖居之所。
 
  秦岭的莽莽大山两千年前就是人类的庇护所
 
  人们总在潜意识中把森林当做是无数树木构成的大地景观,而实际上森林的组成并非如此简单。乔木是森林的主体;灌丛、草本植物、苔藓和地衣、鸟兽昆虫,甚至林中的河流水塘、冰潭飞瀑,所有的这一切使森林成为这个星球陆地上最为复杂、最为稳定、也最为重要的生态系统。

  西藏墨脱的季雨林呈现出异乎寻常的复杂结构
 
  很少有人意识到森林影响着整个星球的气候。地球上气候的变化主要由太阳辐射、大气环流和下垫面的性质所决定。森林林冠层在日间可以吸收30-75%的太阳辐射,大量蒸腾的水分不仅可以改变局部的温度和湿度,也进而影响广阔土地的气流走向。高大的森林增加下垫面的高度和粗糙度,阻挡气流前进,促其上升并冷却形成降水。
 
  森林之中能够形成潮湿温暖的小气候
 
  森林维护着对江河水土的安宁。林地上各种灌丛植物充分发育覆盖地表,地下各种根系盘根错节,把土地紧紧连结在一起。当降雨时, 森林凭借它庞大的树冠可截留雨水,地表深厚的枯枝落叶层和发达的根系使落到地面的雨水流速减慢, 并迅速渗入土壤, 使地表水转变为地下水。下雨时只要有1厘米厚的枯枝落叶层, 就可以把地表径流减少到裸地的1/4以下, 泥沙量减少到裸地的7%以下。林地土壤的渗透力超过一般降水的强度, 一场暴雨一般可被森林完全吸收。无论旱涝,森林无时无刻不在发挥着雨时蓄水、旱时吐水的巨大作用。
 
  拉萨河沿岸的森林保护着这一片高原的绿色纽带
 
  森林庇护着人类的生活。全球每年排入空气中的灰尘超过1亿吨,如果没有森林的吸收,我们的星球的大气将充斥着灰尘和毒气。森林通过阻挡和摩擦可以阻止流沙的扩散,分解空气的流动方向,削减风力。以中国的首都北京为例,如果没有太行山和燕山的莽莽森林作为阻隔,这个城市将暴露在西伯利亚的寒流和中国西北的黄沙之下,变成冰雪黄沙之地。
 
  森林养育物种。地球上有500 万至5000 万种生物, 其中一半以上在森林中栖息繁衍。还有大量物种的生存空间依赖森林的存在得以维持。加上森林通过光合作用吸收二氧化碳,削减温室效应并释放出大量生物赖以生存的氧气的功能。如果没有森林,整个星球将成为生命的荒漠。
 
  红蹼树蛙、白眉长臂猿、栗喉蜂虎、金喉拟啄木鸟
 
  过去的几十年中,中国的森林曾经风雨飘摇。摆脱贫困的豪迈情怀使我们近乎疯狂地索取一切可以被利用的资源,而森林首当其冲。森林的急剧减少直到今天还在给整个国家带来沉重的打击。我们的江河变得浑浊或者干涸,荒漠化逼近城市边缘,反常气候频频出现。而近年一再发生的泥石流、塌方和滑坡,和江河上游高山峡谷地区的森林减少有着千丝万缕的联系。
 
  1998年的全国禁伐令给了中国的森林以恢复的机会。我们欣喜地看到,森林,这种曾经在千万年的时间里改变地球的大气和地貌的地被景观,这种孕育了绝大部分陆地生命的生态系统,有着惊人的恢复能力。很多曾经采伐一空的土地慢慢开始了新森林的演替,先锋的阔叶树占据了地表,形成连绵的绿色景观。
 
  尽管真正波澜壮阔的森林演替还在后面,但绿色还是能让人感受到希望和温暖。
 
  本文为山水自然保护中心原创,谢绝转载,如有需要,请联系我们。
 
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碳汇与水源保护项目

人类对于森林的感情,植根于我们的内心深处,是我们从原始祖先那里继承的最真诚朴实的依恋。森林默默守护着人类生存的家园,改善着我们共同的生存环境,如果没有森林,整个星球将成为生命的荒漠。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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