文:本站原创 — 2015-6-22 10:41:08

【山水看自然】风吹来的华夏

  华夏文明(油画家萧鹏作品)
 
  地理篇风吹来的华夏
 
  在中国地图上有一条看不见的直线,以45°角从西南到东北延伸。这条线的南端是云南腾冲,这条线的北端是黑龙江黑河。数个世纪以来,中国90%以上的人口都生活在这条线以东约36%的土地上,而以西近三分之二的国土面积上则是地广人稀,有些地方至今仍是野生动物麋集的荒野。
 
  这条线与另一条在地图上看得见的折线非常接近,即“大兴安岭-阴山-贺兰山-巴颜喀拉山-冈底斯山”几大山脉的走向。这些山脉以东,多年平均降雨量多在200毫米以上;这些山脉以西,除了局部山地,多年平均降雨量均在200毫米以下。
 
  黑龙江黑河
 
  这是中国干旱区与非干旱区的分界线。究其成因,缘于从印度洋和太平洋来的暖湿气团深入内陆后最终受到上述山脉的阻挡,不能再向北、向西前进,所以夏季风带来的雨水也止步于斯。
 
  亘古以来,鸟兽逐水草而居,而人又何尝不是。于是,农耕文明繁盛蓬勃的扩张力也受制于雨水而止步于斯。水由雨来,雨因风生。风水组合在一起,便是华夏文明中最具玄机的字眼。
 
  古代农耕文明
 
  在分界线以西,主宰气流的是西风和北风。西风是世界性的。地球赤道地区接受太阳热量较多,空气受热膨胀上升,上升的气团在副热带地区高空遇冷下沉流向高纬度的低压区。因为地球自西向东的运动,这些气团也被带动自西向东流动,形成环绕地球中纬度地带而终年存在的西风带。
 
  在欧亚大陆西端,西风来自大西洋洋面,携带的水汽在欧洲造就了温带海洋性气候区和地中海气候区。末次冰期后,这些区域形成了富饶的温带森林,橡树、枫树、杨树、松树等我们熟知的树木主宰着这些地区,棕色松软的土壤是后来农业发展的基础。
 
  地球上的气压带和风带示意图
 
  葡萄、橄榄等西方农业中重要的作物,也起源在温带森林或地中海气候下的灌木林中。在欧亚大陆腹地,愈深入则西风能够带来的雨水愈少,所以越往东则渐次干旱,形成了从东欧延伸至中国新疆、内蒙的广袤草原和沙地。
 
  极地附近的低温气团向南移动形成不时爆发的北风寒流,在冬季更为显著。西风、北风共同作用,不断地从欧亚大陆中部的沙地带起细沙黄尘,吹向欧亚大陆东端,但遭到秦岭、太行山脉的阻隔,又只得将大部分沙土抛下,日积月累,形成了地球上最为深厚广袤的黄土高地。

  广袤的黄土高地
 
  若无青藏高原,任由西风和北风长驱直入的话,那中国东部就会跟阿拉伯半岛至印度北部一样干旱。青藏高原的隆起打断了副热带高压和西风带在中国南部的分布;同时,促成源于印度洋的夏季风沿中国干旱-非干旱区分界线上的山脉一路向东北深入内陆,形成我们在天气预报上经常听说的“西南暖湿气流”,成为中国东半部降水的主要来源之一。
 
  另一方面,中国海岸线的纬度和走向,为中国东半部带来了另一部分重要降水。中国海岸线从热带延伸至温带,并向太平洋凸出。源于太平洋西部热带海域的暖流“黑潮”在中国东部外海向北涌去,随季节的变化改变流向。副热带高压也随之共进退,大体夏季向北、向西(即内陆方向)扩张,冬季向南、向东(即大洋面)退缩。
 
  黑潮主干经吐噶喇海峡进入太平洋
 
  节气篇风吹来的华夏
 
  春夏之交黑潮复苏,副热带高压北扩,挤压着北缘、西缘的暖湿气团登陆中国南方,于是带来烟雨濛濛的梅雨季节。夏季,洋面副热带高压西缘继续北扩西沿进入中国中南部内陆,带来火炉般的伏旱。之后若高压气团继续向北移动,则其南缘的热带低压紧随其后,这就带来了狂风暴雨的台风季节。
 
  二十四节气之雨水
 
  二十四节气之夏至
 
  二十四节气之大暑
 
  中国东部的水旱频仍,就是由印度洋季风的周期性和每年太平洋面的副热带高压在中国东部的进退节律共同造就的结果。唯有接近青藏高原的西南一带,较少受到西北寒潮和副热带高压的影响,又因西南季风和东南季风的微妙平衡而降雨充沛,温湿度较为稳定,于是有可能出现“天府之国”,在漫长的地质变化年代中成为各种生物的庇护所。
 
  “天府之国”—四川
 
  文明篇风吹来的华夏
 
  西南风、东南风和西北风因青藏高原和中国的其他山脉而形成走向,塑造了中国的生命景观和文明历史。源于青藏的黄河及其支流将大量西北风带来的黄土往东输送,形成了关中沃野和华北平原。这就是华夏先民最早的主要历史舞台。
 
  中国历史文明
 
  《诗经》中处处流露着这片土地在文明之初因“风”和“水”而来的生命丰饶。《关雎》《鸳鸯》《蒹葭》等名篇起兴所在,皆为芳草萋萋的湿地和碧水盈满的河湾,先民栖居地优美的自然景观跃然纸上。鹿鸣呦呦,说明当时华北地区为大片适宜赤鹿或者梅花鹿生存的阔叶森林所覆盖。而今天这样的连片森林,只有在人迹罕至的俄罗斯远东乌苏里地区还可窥见,而当地恰也是西南风和东南风在东亚地区能施加强力影响的最北角。
 
  《诗经》
 
  物种篇风吹来的华夏
 
  季风气候的不稳定性,在其边缘地区如中国东部更为显著。对水旱灾害的应对与适应,是中国漫长历史中农业社会要应对的头等大事。而久处其间的生物,对此也形成了特殊的适应性。例如麋鹿,是一种完全适应洪泛平原湿地和周边草地的大型食草动物。它们极善于游泳,还能觅食水面以下的植物,即便是长江中爆发的大洪水,对它们的生存而言也不是一种威胁。而目前世界上唯一一个真正的野生麋鹿种群,就是借1998年的长江洪水从湖北石首天鹅洲麋鹿放养点渡过长江自然扩散至洞庭湖流域的。
 
  麋鹿
 
  而北方狭口蛙,则是一种完全适应华北地区极具不确定性的夏季降雨和漫长干旱季节的两栖动物。这种小型青蛙平时藏身于凉爽潮湿的土穴中,以蛰伏度过漫长的寒冷和干旱时节,只在夏季湿润的夜晚出外觅食昆虫。夏季的暴雨能够迅速促发它们的繁殖。北方狭口蛙只在夏季暴雨后形成的浅水洼中产卵。仅仅二十二天,它们的卵就能发育成为能够离开水也可以生存的幼蛙,这比几乎所有其他两栖类都要迅速。季风的动荡本性使得这片土地上的生命异常顽强。
 
  北方狭口蛙
 
  年复一年,来自南方海洋的暖风与北方极地的寒流在东亚的这片土地上交汇碰撞,推动着春夏秋冬的轮转,它们与其他自然因素一道,构成了中国的“天时”和“地利”。每年残冬初春,薰风一路向北,次第催开山茶花、梅花、杜鹃花、油菜花、山桃花、山杏花……华者,花也。风带来了花团锦簇,也造就了中华的风骨。
 
  长城
 
  原文刊载于《森林与人类》2013年第9期非注明外图片均来源于网络
 
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每年残冬初春,薰风一路向北,次第催开山茶花、梅花、杜鹃花、油菜花、山桃花、山杏花……华者,花也。风带来了花团锦簇,也造就了中华的风骨。

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