文:程淑玲 — 2015-6-18 16:06:30

熊耳新鲜事:羊倌养蜂忙

  熊耳山“长着”一对“熊耳朵”
 
  矛盾
 
  熊耳山因远远看去像一只憨厚可爱的熊而得名。熊耳村位于四川省理县甘堡乡,就安静地坐落在熊耳山的半山腰上,全村500人左右。因交通不便,村里一直过着传统的农耕生活。但因为水源和土地资源有限,熊耳村其实并不适于农耕,除了种植蔬菜以外,村民主要依靠外出打工来养家糊口,收入并不理想。
 
  熊耳村坐落在熊耳山的半山腰
 
  理县春有樱桃,夏可避暑,秋有红叶,冬可滑雪,加之少数民族风情浓厚,近年来旅游市场逐渐升温。旅游业的发展,顺带也引起了羊肉价格的飙升。当地人为了增加收入,养山羊的便渐渐多了起来。熊耳村有10多户村民养羊,总数达到1000只左右。
 
  当地壮美的自然风光(理县毕棚沟)
 
  熊耳村的嘉绒藏族舞蹈
 
  可是,山羊遍地敞放,问题随之出现,尤其是在冬春食物匮乏的季节。山上的原生灌丛和近年种下的岷江柏幼苗,会被山羊啃食致死。熊耳村的山羊多了,山却秃了。
 
 
  熊耳村散放的山羊和柏树幼苗林
 
  看到这样的状况,身为熊耳村村长的杨三宝忧心忡忡。为了熊耳山山林的未来,他想让村民停止放羊,可面对山羊利益的诱惑和村民收入的困境,他无可奈何。一方面村民收入来源有限,大家都希望能改善生活;另一方面熊耳村有柏树幼苗林5000多亩,每年仅理县林业局支持的树苗补植费用就高达60万元,养羊和熊耳村的生态恢复目标两相矛盾。
 
  熊耳村的幼林恢复地
 
  转机
 
  2013年底,三宝去平武关坝村参观学习,受到了很大的启发。关坝村以前也面临类似的困境,但当地人成立了养蜂合作社,发展养蜂,以合作社的形式售卖,全村收益。这个经验让三宝心里有了一个设想。
 
  熊耳村的高山上遍布野生土黄连和沙棘,前者有清热解毒的药用价值,后者则被称为维生素之王,都是很好的蜜源植物。又因为地处四川高山地区,熊耳村还保有中华蜜蜂这个数量日渐减少的传统蜂种。而且村里也不乏养蜂的能手。想到这么多有利条件,三宝村长一回熊耳,立刻和村委会、村民商量起来,决定成立熊耳村养殖合作社,把养蜂作为熊耳村产业发展的重要方向。
 
  蜜源植物三颗针(土黄连)
 
  10月,土黄连结出红色果子
 
  在理县林业局的支持下,村长找来了专家指导村里蜂农的技术问题,改善了养蜂的技术,同时向蜂农提出了养蜂和收蜜的标准:养蜂过程中不能喂食白糖;过滤过程中不能添加任何东西;收割的蜂蜜一定要是自然成熟的封盖蜜,波美度在41度以上。
 
  三宝拉着村里积极响应的蜂农成立了养蜂小组,接着注册成立了熊耳村养殖合作社。经过一年的工作,在2014年年底,他们终于推出了熊耳药蜜的产品。
 
  熊耳药蜜产品
 
  发展养蜂合作社的同时,保护专家也为当地生态环境的保护提出了建议。村长和其他村委积极与养羊户协商,劝村民将羊卖掉,以保护水源地的植被。
 
  专家在熊耳山水源地实地踏勘
 
 
  收集枯枝落叶检测其持水能力
 
  村里的刘叔是养蜂好手,之前因为蜂蜜没有买家,他把养蜂当做赚点小钱的活路,把养羊作为主业。他养了一群羊,一年卖10只左右,收入大概10000元,但家里必须出一个人一年365天外出放羊。三宝和其他村委给他算了笔账,如果家里养20-30箱蜜蜂,一年收割300斤左右的蜂蜜,只要卖得出去,其实收入和养羊相当。刘叔自己心里想一想,觉得这笔账是算对了的,于是在合作社收购了他家的蜂蜜后把羊都卖了。
 
  蜂农收蜜
 
  后来陆陆续续有几户人家也开始卖羊,虽然不能在短时间内完全杜绝村里放羊的情况,但还是让三宝村长看到了希望。
 
  三宝和村里人反复思量着养羊和养蜂之间的利弊。养羊虽然能带来短时的收益,但一旦破坏了熊耳村的环境,就不可能再恢复。而养蜂依赖的是村子里的好环境,先天的优势让熊耳村的蜂蜜成为上好产品,如果能好好加以经营,在未来将是村民发展和环境保护的双重保障。
 
  合作社绘制熊耳社区资源图
 
  但未来究竟如何?蜜蜂和山羊的故事会怎样续写?这既取决于熊耳村人长远的行动,也需要更多来自市场的支持。
 
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西南山地

熊耳村位于四川省理县甘堡乡,那里风景秀美,却因为历史的原因和自然资源的限制,经济相对落后。如何才能在增加收入的同时,不违背保护水源林的目标?当地人权衡着利弊做出抉择,故事由此开始。

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