文:本站原创 — 2015-6-17 16:40:00

【山水看自然】流过历史长河的水

  从月亮上看地球,看到最多的颜色就是蓝色、白色和土黄色。蓝色来自水,白色还是来自水。其实“水”是“地”球表面最基本的元素,所有大地归根结底不过都是岛屿,中国古人称呼世界,有道是“四海之内”、“四大部洲”,何其睿智。而水的运动,在一定程度上决定了陆地地表的地形地势,决定了生命的活动演化,乃至造就了人类历史,浩浩汤汤,厚泽万物,以致古人两千多年前就洞见到大德当“上善若水”。
 
  通天河宽谷地(耿栋摄)
 
  高中时代,化学老师曾在堂上考问众人,如果没有氢键,世界将会怎样?一时大家无言。过了会儿,老先生说没有氢键就没有水,没有水就没有咱们。原来这是“水是生命之源”的另一种说法。水分子由一个氧原子和两个氢原子组成,分子与分子之间也可以由氢键连接。这种不强不弱的作用力使得液态水成为一种不可压缩的神奇物质,也使得水分子成为世界上最简单却最不平凡的分子。而氢键也是很多大型分子结构——如DNA分子的双螺旋结构,蛋白质大分子的某些折叠结构等——得以维持的关键作用力。很多大分子的功能结构只有在液态水中才能维持,液态水环境是很多大分子间相互作用发生的充分条件。
 
  回溯地球生命的演化史,一切都从地球表面出现液态水开始。有人推断地球上的液态水部分来源于地壳内部的化学反应,部分来自太阳系形成之初撞击地球的彗星。海洋和湖泊形成了生命最早的分子反应釜,而风霜雪雨形成的地表径流,则为数亿年后将登陆的生命大剧雕琢着不断变化的舞台。
 
  地表径流,雕琢着生命的舞台(耿栋摄)
 
  海洋孕育了最早的生命,还参与了对陆地地形的塑造。海洋蒸发出的大量水汽升腾凝作云团,在季风的推动下进入内陆,形成降雨。点滴雨水汇成水流,涓涓细流又汇作溟濛大川。水流以其动能侵蚀地表岩土,开出河谷沟壑,并将颗粒碎屑输送到千万里外,再堆积成沿海滩涂,河口三角洲或者洪泛平原。在寒冷的冰期,深入大陆的降雨化为终年霰雪,堆积形成冰盖,冰盖向低处滑动形成冰川——固态水的“河流”。冰川能够更为缓慢有力地刻蚀大地,磨岩为粉,碾石成碛,释放禁锢在坚硬岩石中的矿物盐类,为土壤形成提供重要基质。
 
  滩涂上的东方鸻(王放摄)
 
  寒武纪末第一次生命大爆炸残留至今的遗迹,无一不在当时大陆架边缘的浅海地区。埋藏化石的岩层是由细腻颗粒构成的泥岩,而这也反映古生物富集的这些地带正是有来自陆地的沉积物大量堆积的水域。而这类能够得到河流带来的陆地物质的地域,至今仍是各类生物大量富集的“热点地区”。“逐水草而居”,归根结底是逐“水流”而居,这一点从古生代开始就是生命运动的基本规律之一了。
 
  水的流动,既是水本身,又是一切水能携带的物质的输送和再分配过程,这一过程决定了很多生物的分布格局,构造出波澜壮阔的生命史。海洋中的水流是为“洋流”。这种由地球自转、大气流动和大陆边缘地貌共同作用导引的水流是地球表面最宏大的力量之一,有史以来出现过的所有江河与之相比都如蝼蚁之于苍龙,萤火之于星辰。这种水流往往宽上百千米,深数千米,横跨大洋纵横万里。从赤道出发的洋流温暖氤氲,清澈深蓝;流经极地的洋流冰冷凛冽,混沌汹涌。数以兆亿的生物追寻着或是被洋流推动着在大洋中循环往返,沉浮进退,生生不息。这些生物包括小至微米的单细胞藻类,大至有史以来最大的动物蓝鲸。即便是坚如磐石的珊瑚,其生命的早期亦是在洋流中飘荡度过。陆地上的水流是为“河流”。世界上有若干被不同民族称为各自“母亲”的河流,足可见河流对大地上生物生存的决定性影响。
 
  逐“水流”而居的藏野驴
 
  生命从水中起源,而生命形式的飞跃乃至文明的形成,却与生命突破水的限制有关。陆生动植物中相对原始的类群,如植物中的苔藓和动物中的两栖动物,其配子的结合不能离开外界水环境。而相对进步的类群,如植物中的裸子植物和动物中的爬行动物,其配子的结合则不依赖于外界水环境。但是淡水资源在陆地上的分布依然决定着淡水水生生物和陆生动植物的分布格局。水资源丰富的地方,一般也是物种众多或生物量巨大的区域。而这些流域,经常也是人类古代文明的发祥之地。中国的长江和黄河就是典型例子。

  湿地中的朱鹮(耿栋摄)
 
  长江和黄河均源于青藏高原东部的三江源地区,源头均为大陆冰川。两条大河间曾经生长游荡着无数的生灵,曾经滋生它们的水土,如今维持着世界上最庞大的人口和即将再度成为世界第一的经济规模。
 
  黄河一路往东,折向北,流经干旱半干旱的鄂尔多斯高原和黄土高原,一路接收支流带来的水土,最后在太行山以东至太平洋西岸之间堆积出广袤的华北平原。在炎黄子孙尚未脱离蒙昧的时代,黄河中下游平原上犀象遍野,鹿鸣呦呦。这种景象得益于雨季里大河及其支流在广袤空间中的自由漫流,这能年复一年地为土地带来新的营养,散布滋生新的生命。《诗经》中的民歌《关雎》、《蒹葭》、《伐檀》、《淇奥》等篇章,用幽婉起兴为我们展现了三千年前那个河汊密布,草木葳蕤的中华。那是中华文明臻于成熟的前夜,规模庞大的水利工程尚未将河流束缚在堤坝之内;从辽河口至淮河口的滨海平原上,秋风能卷起如大海般无垠的层层苇浪;“密集”尚被写作“麋集”,因为当时麋鹿数量之大,远超今天非洲角马群的规模。苇浪之外,是世界上最平缓、最广阔的潮间带泥滩;退潮时会有数十千米宽的细腻黄土海床露出水面;在每一方寸泥地中都能发现蠕蠕而动的无脊椎动物,或是虾蟹,或是螺蛤,或是沙蚕。往返于北极和澳大利亚的庞大鸟群每年迁徙间都要在此停留觅食,离开时体重倍增。
 
  《关雎》中的“参差荇菜”(王放摄)

  “蒹葭苍苍”与赤麻鸭(王放摄)
 
  长江一路向东,折向南,流经群山,曲折进入长江中下游平原。长江流域大多处于湿润季风区,丰沛的降雨造就了位居世界第四的径流量。长江中游曾有一片烟波大泽,如今徒剩一个“云梦”的地名,犹记录着往昔的浪漫。当周穆王兵临此地时,目之所及,“虎兕(音“四”,双角犀牛)麋鹿满之”,蛮荒失道,于是只能杀鼉(音“驼”,扬子鳄)、鼋(大鳖,可能是斑鼋)无数以为浮桥。那种景象我们已经无法想见。但直到并不久远的几十年前,长江中仍然洄游着世界上最长的淡水鱼(白鲟)和最大的龟(斑鼋),长江仍然是世界上仅有的两条同时有两种淡水鲸类(白鱀豚和江豚)定居的大河之一(另一条是亚马逊河)。它们是从那个江天一色时代留下来的暮霭。长江支流从林莽山岭间带来浓稠的养分,唯有恣意生长的大型鲤科鱼类(青、草、鲢、鱅、鲤、鲫、鳊…)才能有效地将如此大量的营养物质转化做动物的肌体。讽刺的是,虽然这些鱼类目前在长江中的数量已经不足历史数量之万一,它们的后代只要被带至世界上其他地区任何有类似条件的水域,无论在南美还是北美,欧洲还是澳洲,却都能迅速膨胀至产生生物入侵灾难的地步。
 
  中华白海豚,与它长相相似的淡水鲸白鳍豚已经功能性灭绝
 
  “禹传子,家天下”,上古带有神话色彩的文明传承到此戛然而止,自是开启中国的王朝篇章——这个传说中的王朝,就是由大禹的儿子启建立的夏朝。大禹的功业,从治水开始。有方家观点认为东方式的宏伟王朝体制起源于在大河流域“治水”过程中对社会资源的统筹管理。中国的夏朝如可证实其存在,那无疑是上述观点的有力注脚。大兴水利,与水周旋,自夏商以降,已是历朝历代的重要内政,也是政府合法性的重要来源。水,已经被赋予了政治的属性。水利所针对的,自然是水害。其实,水善利万物而不争,这是水的固有属性,所谓“利害”均因人而成。世界进入文明时代,尤其是工业文明时代以来,在越来越多的地方,河川化为沟渠,湖泊化为水库,利万物化为利一人。蓝绿本色在越来越多的水体中消退,代之以异化的五颜六色。而放眼海洋,洋流虽然波涛依旧,其中的生命脉动却日渐暗淡乏力。水的生命色彩——换言之,生态服务功能价值——在全球各地渐渐退去。
 
  水的利害,其实因人而成
 
  因水土流失,水污染,水生生物多样性丧失和水资源短缺造成的环境问题、经济问题、社会问题乃至政治问题正在威胁着人类社会的存续与发展。如何化“机械”的水利工程成能重新体现水“善利万物”本性的系统功能恢复?能否解决这一问题,已成为人类社会向生态文明演进过程中必须接受的挑战。否则,人终将如历史上一拨拨辉煌过的生命形式那样成为地层中的一道印记。一切烟消云散后,水流依旧,岁月如斯,只要水在,生命不息。
 
  西南山地——只要水在,生命不息(耿栋摄)
 
symptoms of chlamydia in throat garysaggu.com symptoms of chlamydia for men
symptoms of chlamydia in throat chlamydia cure symptoms of chlamydia for men
should i cheat on my girlfriend open will my girlfriend cheat
what to do when your wife cheated on you blog.sitters4charities.org wife wants to cheat
what to do when your wife cheated on you blog.sitters4charities.org wife wants to cheat
finding out your boyfriend cheated click i cheated on my boyfriend now what
finding out your boyfriend cheated click i cheated on my boyfriend now what
finding out your boyfriend cheated click i cheated on my boyfriend now what
finding out your boyfriend cheated go i cheated on my boyfriend now what
why do boys cheat on their girlfriends site why do guys cheat on their girlfriends
cheats how many men have affairs wife affair
meet to cheat site will my husband cheat again
walgreens photo coupons online drug manufacturer coupons coupons rx
walgreens pharmacy coupons new prescription go albertsons pharmacy coupon
medication coupons printable link walgreens photo promo codes
petmart pharmacy coupons walgreens photos coupon code discount drug coupon
petmart pharmacy coupons walgreens photos coupon code discount drug coupon
copay cards for prescription drugs open walgreens coupons for prints
abortion pills over the counter read abortion in the united states
abortion pills over the counter read abortion in the united states
abortion pills over the counter site abortion in the united states
cvs photo promo codes click cvs deals
how to get abortion early abortion methods abortion at 6 weeks
printable free coupons printable free coupons walgreens prescription coupons
rx prescription coupons oxphysio.co.uk prescription discounts cards
viagra manufacturer coupon 2015 tracyawheeler.com viagra manufacturer coupon 2015
viagra manufacturer coupon 2015 tracyawheeler.com viagra manufacturer coupon 2015
viagra pill read diflucan 100mg
free prescription card f6finserve.com prescription drug cards
free prescription cards discount read how to get free coupons
free prescription cards discount read how to get free coupons
pfizer viagra coupon blog.plazacutlery.com viagra coupon pfizer
discount drug coupon site discount card for prescription drugs
viagra discount coupon drug coupons viagra coupons and discounts
prescription coupon prescription savings cards canada drug pharmacy coupon
prescription coupon prescription savings cards canada drug pharmacy coupon
prescription coupon modelosguayaquil.com canada drug pharmacy coupon
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
cialis coupons from manufacturer read free discount prescription cards
cialis coupons from manufacturer blog.nvcoin.com free discount prescription cards
lilly cialis coupon site free printable cialis coupons
lilly cialis coupon open free printable cialis coupons
prescription drugs coupons click cialis coupon card
discount prescription drug card is-aber.net internet drug coupons
viagra szedése survivingediscovery.com viagra 100mg
naproxen mylan naproxen mylan naproxen
diflucan forum onlineseoanalyzer.com diflucan kandida
arcoxia preis come2belgrade.com arcoxia 120mg
niacinamide nedir link niacin band
loperamida para que es click loperamide dosage
tadalafil site tadalafil
tadalafil mazsoft.com tadalafil
tadalafil click tadalafil
coversyl 4 mg link coversyl notice
baclofen 10 mg tablet blog.ruleof3.ae baclofen wiki
baclofen 10 mg tablet blog.ruleof3.ae baclofen wiki
baclofen 10 mg tablet baclofen 10 mg tablet baclofen wiki
strattera adhd strattera vs ritalin strattera misbrug
chlorpromazine hydrochloride chlorpromazine vidal chlorpromazine pdf
chlorpromazine hydrochloride click chlorpromazine pdf
prograf prograf prografia aps
strassera extracelular strass
adalat oros precio truonggiang.net adalat 10
adalat oros precio adalat oros adalat 10
adalat oros precio adalat oros adalat 10
cialis free coupon pathakwavecurecenter.com cialis free coupon
cialis free coupon cialis coupon cialis free coupon
discount coupons for cialis lilly coupons for cialis online cialis coupons
discount coupons for cialis lilly coupons for cialis online cialis coupons
discount coupons for prescriptions free printable cialis coupons free cialis coupon
discount coupons for prescriptions farsettiarte.it free cialis coupon
viagra recenze viagra recenze viagra prodej
medical abortion cost how much do abortion pill cost abortion pill debate
strattera voucher strattera discounts price of strattera
irbesartan hidroclorotiazida referencia ilkpirlantam.com irbesartana 300
cialis coupon card printable cialis coupon discount coupons for cialis
information about abortion pill the abortion pill after abortion pill
esomeprazole gxp cmi esomeprazole sandoz vs nexium esomeprazole rbx cmi
coupon for prescription cialis coupon lilly discount coupon for cialis
prescription coupon card acnc.com free printable cialis coupons
how much is a abortion pill anti abortion pill price of an abortion pill
how much is a abortion pill average cost of an abortion pill price of an abortion pill
amoxicillin nedir amoxicillin al 1000 amoxicillin-rnp
amoxicillin nedir amoxicillin amoxicillin-rnp
thyrax duitsland bistromc.org thyrax duitsland
cialis patent cialis patent cialis 20 mg
nootropil buy nootropil review nootropil
nootropil buy nootropil 800 g nootropil
coupon for free cialis cialis manufacturer coupon 2016 cialis coupon free
prescription coupon discount prescription coupons cialis coupon 2015
prescription coupon coupon cialis cialis coupon 2015
crestor 5 mg tablet crestor savings card 90 day crestor 20mg price
voltaren nedir voltaren retard voltaren ampul
amoxicillin 500 mg aictmkulahospital.org amoxicillin
amoxicillin 500 mg aictmkulahospital.org amoxicillin
abortion pill questions spontaneous abortion pill late term abortion pill clinics
amoxicillin al 1000 alexebeauty.com amoxicillin endikasyonlar
aspiration abortion abortion pill debate abortion pill video
discount coupons for prescriptions prescription drug coupons online cialis coupons
discount coupons for prescriptions prescription drug coupons online cialis coupons
discount coupons for prescriptions prescription drug coupons online cialis coupons
free abortion pill how much do abortion pill cost abortion pill information
free abortion pill non surgical abortion pill abortion pill information
vermox alkohol hieple.net vermox
vermox alkohol hieple.net vermox
home abortion pill methods medical abortion cost abortion pill debate
vermox sirup realtycollective.com vermox spc
low cost abortion pill abortion price how does abortion pill work
coupon for free cialis cialis discount coupon coupons cialis
late term abortion pill clinics how much is an abortion pill how does abortion pill work
what is an abortion pill cost for an abortion aspiration abortion
amoxicillin al 1000 amoxicillin dermani haqqinda amoxicilline
cheap abortion pill clinics angkortaxiservice.com after abortion pill
teenage abortion pill late term abortion pill clinics when can you get an abortion pill
cialis kopiprodukter cialis cialis wiki
should abortion pill be legal buy abortion pill abortion pill cost without insurance
acetazolamide 250 mg tablets acetazolamide cerebral edema acetazolamide blood brain barrier
coupon prescription coupon for cialis discount prescription coupons
average cost of an abortion pill abortion pill risks abortion pill cost without insurance
medical abortion clinics amres.nl where do you have an abortion
abortion pill process arborawning.com abortions facts
articles on abortion pill continentalnord.com abortion pill questions
voltaren krem nedir avonotakaronetwork.co.nz voltaren gel
duphaston tablete za odgodu menstruacije duphaston forum duphaston iskustva
duphaston tablete za odgodu menstruacije duphaston tablete za odgodu menstruacije duphaston iskustva
free abortion pill anti abortion pill abortion pill services
amoxicillin nedir amoxicillin endikasyonlar amoxicilline
amoxicillin nedir albayraq-uae.com amoxicilline
cialis free sample coupons transfer prescription coupon online cialis coupons
coupon for cialis cialis discount coupon cialis coupon card
coupon for cialis cialis discount coupon cialis coupon card
viagra.com coupon canadian pharmacy coupons discount coupons for prescription medications
viagra.com coupon pharmacy discount coupon discount coupons for prescription medications
pill abortion pros and cons of abortion non surgical abortion pill
pill abortion pros and cons of abortion non surgical abortion pill
2nd trimester abortion pill how much are abortions how much is the abortion pill
first trimester national abortion federation abortion pills for sale
first trimester national abortion federation abortion pills for sale
copay cards for prescription drugs katkavaughan.net internet drug coupons
copay cards for prescription drugs katkavaughan.net internet drug coupons
copay cards for prescription drugs katkavaughan.net internet drug coupons
abortion new york abortion side effects does insurance cover abortion
abortion clinics in columbus ohio what happens when you get an abortion abortion info
lilly cialis coupons marcusuniforms.com cialis coupons 2015
lilly cialis coupons cialis coupon free prescription drug discount cards
lilly cialis coupons prescription savings card prescription drug discount cards
narcan challenge naltrexone for thyroid alcohol and naltrexone
narcan challenge naltrexone for thyroid alcohol and naltrexone
naltrexone opioid naktrexone what is the difference between naloxone and naltrexone
naltrexone opioid naltrexone brand name what is the difference between naloxone and naltrexone
low dose naltrexone online pharmacy low dose naltrexone fertility detox
low dose naltrexone online pharmacy low dose naltrexone fertility detox
revia reviews go stopping naltrexone
revia reviews go stopping naltrexone
naltrexone challenge open what happens if you take naltrexone and opiates
naltrexone pellets heroin addiction vivitrol injection cost
naltrexone mg naltrexone multiple sclerosis vivitrol shot cost
naltrexone mg link vivitrol shot cost
naltrexone drug test open naltrexone for alcohol
low dose naltrexone pregnancy partickcurlingclub.co.uk opioid blocker injection
naltrexone for anxiety zygonie.com naltrexone benefits
low dose naltrexone sleep site alcohol naltrexone
low dose naltrexone sleep low dose naltrexone weight loss alcohol naltrexone
vivitrol wiki zygonie.com use of naltrexone
how does naltrexone work charamin.jp naltrexone 25 mg
define naltrexone link naltrexone 50 mg side effects
alcohol implant treatment charamin.com naltrexone over the counter
when to take ldn does drinking alcohol help with opiate withdrawal how long will naltrexone block opiates
when to take ldn read how long will naltrexone block opiates
naltrexone thyroid click naltrexone in alcohol dependence
naltrexone thyroid click naltrexone in alcohol dependence
prednisolon 35 mg ogvitaminerhvor.site prednisolon 10 dages kur
prednisolon 35 mg ogvitaminerhvor.site prednisolon 10 dages kur
glimepirid amaryl medicintitler.site glimepirid hexal
碳汇与水源保护项目

水是“地”球表面最基本的元素,所有大地归根结底也不过是岛屿。水的运动,在一定程度上决定了陆地地表的地形地势,决定了生命的活动演化,乃至造就了人类历史。当一切烟消云散,只有水仍川流不息,孕育生机。

项目团队

    项目支持伙伴

    关于

    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

    链接

    关注