文:顾垒 图:顾垒 — 2015-6-17 14:24:12

【山水看自然】鄂木错一日花赏

  春天是踏青赏花的时节,但“人间四月芳菲尽,山寺桃花始盛开”,高原上的“春天”,比平原地区要晚得多。植物人顾有容曾在高原雨季来到年保玉则的鄂木措,当时他受邀参加了年保大会和快速生物多样性调查(RAP)。这篇图文,就是他在鄂木错的一日见闻。让我们跟随他的记述,来场高原踏青。
 
  年保玉则是巴颜喀拉山脉的东部主峰,位于青海省和四川省的分界线上。由于水分和热量条件较好,这里的植物多样性比三江源自然保护区乃至整个青海省的其他地区都要丰富一些,物种构成上更加接近四川省阿坝州的高山灌丛和草甸。
 
  ▲年保玉则的“春天”
 
  鄂木措所在的山谷是一条典型的冰川谷,U形的的谷底相当平坦,但两侧的山顶已经风化得看不出角峰的痕迹了,只有远处海拔更高的地方还露着一点峥嵘。7月是这里的雨季,难得见到太阳和蓝天,但天气从来不是阻挡我们爬山看花的理由。作为年保大会PhD洗碗组的成员,在不需要洗碗的时候,我有足够的时间探访这条山谷里的植物。
 
  ▲探访鄂木措山谷的植物
 
  谷底是平坦而湿润的草甸,稀疏地分布着柳和金露梅构成的灌丛。此时草甸上的盛花期已经过去,不过这也意味着不用受大路货的干扰了。
 
  ▲普氏马先蒿
 
  在柳树庇护下开放的是普氏马先蒿(Pedicularis przewalskii)。它有着细长的白色花冠管和深红色的上唇,下唇的颜色在不同地区的种群中变化很大,比如说在四川省小金县的巴郎山是纯白色,黑水县雅克夏山是半白半红,而在这里是全为粉红色。这个种的命名是纪念俄国博物学家Nikolai Przhevalsky,著名的普氏野马也是以他命名的。
 
  ▲碎米蕨叶马先蒿
 
  马先蒿属是一个多样性极高的大属,中国有300多种,大部分集中在青藏高原。鄂木错周围的马先蒿应该超过20种,此时正在开花的也有10种左右。这是碎米蕨叶马先蒿(Pedicularis cheilanthifolia)。它的一个红色花的亚种是中文名字最长的植物,叫斯文氏碎米蕨叶马先蒿。
 
  ▲白氏马先蒿
 
  马先蒿属物种太多,名字不好起,于是就有很多是纪念某人。这是白氏马先蒿(Pedicularis paiana),但我也不知道这是在纪念谁……
 
  ▲葱状灯心草
 
  我沿着一条小冰川的遗迹向上攀爬。随着海拔上升,灌丛由柳变成了杜鹃。这里的土地依然湿润,能看到一些通常在湿地生长的物种,比如说葱状灯心草(Juncus allioides)。灯心草的茎里有一条白色海绵状的髓,过去曾经用它来做油灯的灯芯,故名。前景里没开花的是某种雪莲。
 
  ▲总状绿绒蒿
 
  绿绒蒿永远是高原花卉中的大明星。这株总状绿绒蒿(Meconopsis racemosa)很幸运地长在一个土层深厚的地方,不用像它的大多数同类那样挤石头缝了。此时太阳很吝啬地露了一小脸,我还来不及拍一张逆光的照片它就又被云遮上了。
 
 
  ▲大花红景天
 
  再往高处走,灌丛也消失了;因为坡度渐大,草甸也变得支离破碎,风化的山岩形成了小股的流石滩。大花红景天(Rhodiola crenulata)是流石滩上最高大的物种之一。
 
  ▲五脉绿绒蒿
 
  这里已经是五脉绿绒蒿(Meconopsis quintuplinervia)分布区的边缘,再往和往北就见不到这个物种了。它是红花绿绒蒿(M. punicea)的近缘种,二者可以自然杂交。
 
  ▲多刺绿绒蒿
 
  多刺绿绒蒿(Meconopsis horidula)在三江源地区倒是非常常见,一般都长在开阔的山坡上,在这里挤石头缝可真是委屈它了。在最新的研究中,这个种合并了总状绿绒蒿等十余个种,一跃成为绿绒蒿属分布最广的物种。
 
  ▲滇西绿绒蒿
 
  爬到海拔4700米,我看到了滇西绿绒蒿(Meconopsis impedita),这也是个分布广变异多的种。在本次调查之前,青海省没有这个种分布的记载。
 
  ▲拟耧斗菜
 
  接近山顶,可以看到这条小冰川的冰斗,当然现在已经完全没有冰雪了。四周严重风化的石缝里,拟耧斗菜(Paraquilegia microphylla)正在盛开。
 
  ▲拟耧斗菜的花和果
 
  浅紫色的花朵之间,还能看到去年的果。
 
  ▲双花委陵菜
 
  和这丛双花委陵菜(Potentilla biflora)一起,从山顶俯瞰整个鄂木措,想象数万年前冰川将整个谷地覆盖的情形。如今无论是塑造了整个山谷的大陆性冰川,还是依赖山谷本身发育的山岳冰川,都只剩下碎裂的岩石作为它们曾经存在的证明。而植物依靠岩石风化产生的瘠薄土壤生存,也逐渐把这里改造成更加适宜的生境。
 
 
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西南山地

春天是踏青赏花的时节,高原上的“春天”,比平原地区要晚得多。植物人顾有容曾在高原雨季来到年保玉则的鄂木措,并探访了山谷里的植物。让我们跟随他的一日见闻,来场高原花赏。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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