文:施奇静 — 2015-6-2 17:28:21

植树节小贴士:你种对了吗?

  你种对了吗?
 
  图片来源:日本绿色地球防卫植树基金公益网站
 
  我国第一次出现植树节,是在1915年,以每年清明节为植树节,随后,1928年南京国民政府为纪念孙中山先生,宣布将每年的植树节改在先生逝世纪念日3月12日,称为“总理逝世纪念植树式”。现代的植树节,是在1979年新中国五届全国人大常委会第六次会议上正式确立的。
 
  之所以要植树造林,是为了促进国土绿化,改善生态环境,提高人们对森林价值的认识。森林为我们提供了广泛的产品和服务,例如木材、坚果、蜂蜜、蘑菇等林产品,以及吸收二氧化碳产生碳汇、涵养水源、防风固沙、为野生动物提供栖息地等效益。在当前人们急盼治霾成功的形势下,被誉为“地球之肺”的森林更被寄予了厚望——去年有媒体推出“治理雾霾最有效方式”的网络投票,参与投票的13万网友中超过半数认为最有效的方式是加大绿化多种树。科学研究也指出,植物能够吸附空气中的一些粉尘,起到净化大气的作用,论吸附粉尘的能力,草地比裸露的地面高70倍,而森林比裸地高75倍。
 
  图片来源:光明网
 
  看到这里,有没有动心想加入造林大军呢?不过,种树其实很有学问,下面这些Tips可以帮助你把树种好:
 
  Tip 1:做好前期调查。选择适宜的栽植材料,应该基于对土壤和立地的调查、对气候的考量、对生态风险的评估、对经营目标和所需产品的期望。做出选择之前先做足功课,才不至于白忙活一场。
 
  Tip 2:应优先选择具有长期优势的乡土树种,这是就对生物多样性保护的贡献来说的。只有经试验和当地经验证明外来树种比本地树种更有优势时,才种植外来树种。因为贸然种植外来树种,可能会引起生物入侵。
 
  所谓外来树种,是指不在当地天然分布,从其他地方引进的树种,人们可能出于经济效益、抗逆性等方面的考量引种这些植物,例如能适应洪水、火灾、酸性土壤、杂草竞争等多种环境条件的金合欢。但这些树种在缺乏竞争、病虫害的地方,种群数量急剧增加,可能变成杂草型树种,例如从澳大利亚引进到南非的黑金合欢树,即黑荆树(Acacia mearnsii)。
 
  黑荆树(Acacia mearnsii) 图片来源于网络
 
  1959年中国科学院植物研究所从美国引进了火炬树(Rhus typhina),这种植物适应性强,能忍耐干旱、贫瘠和盐碱,对气温幅度的适应范围较大,根系较浅,萌发能力极强,生长迅速,且秋后树叶变红,果穗艳丽形似火炬,极富观赏价值,因而迅速得到青睐,既被视为良好的护坡、固堤及封滩、固沙的先锋树种,又担当园林风景观赏植物,目前我国北方多省均有引种。但有研究指出,在适宜其生长的环境条件下,每种下1株火炬树,第2年就会发展成100多株,5年后就会覆盖半径5~8m的所有土地。国际上为入侵物种扩散的定义为每3年扩散距离超过3m,在北京火炬树实际的扩散距离已达到6.2~7.5m。虽然还不能武断地判断其为入侵种,但对其的引种需慎之又慎。
 
  火炬树(Rhus typhina) 图片来源于网络
 
  Tip 3:拟定了树种,在进行大面积栽植之前,还有研究工作要做。得先证明该树种对立地条件有很好的生态适应性,且不会在造林地之外形成杂草侵占,才能决定“就是它了”。即使是乡土树种,如果未在造林环境下试验过,也需要先进行系统研究。
 
  Tip 4:应考虑多样性问题,包括树种、基
 
  因类型、单株树龄的多样性。单一树种容易种植,因此有些人工林只种同龄同种的树。这样的人工林为野生动物提供栖息地的质量很低,对生物多样性保护几乎不起作用。而且相较物种丰度大的混合林,单一的人工林一旦发生虫害,往往全“林”覆没。例如在安徽、江苏等地的泡桐林曾集中爆发大袋蛾虫灾,在江西等地也曾大面积爆发松材线虫病。早期的三北防护林也存在同一问题,林业虫害年均发生面积达一千多万公顷。城市行道树也因为相似的原因容易发生虫害。
 
  由于种植单一杨树种,三北防护林张北段林木大批死亡
  图片来源于网络
 
  Tip 5:栽种只是开始,随后的精心养护更为重要。只种不管的话,牲畜的啃食、病虫害的爆发、气象灾害的威胁都可能让 造林的辛苦付诸东流。
 
  参考文献
 
  [1]靳平.植树节史话[J].新天地.2014(3):36-37.
 
  [2]赶走雾霾 从植树开始[N].中国绿色时报,2014-03-13,第A03版.
 
  [3]索菲·希格曼,斯迪芬·巴斯,尼尔·贾德,等.森林可持续经营手册[M].北京:科学出版社,2001.
 
  [4]姜黎黎,赵雪磊.关于外来种火炬树生物入侵的研究综述[J].辽宁林业科技.2013(3):47-48.
 
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我国第一次出现植树节,是在1915年,以每年清明节为植树节,随后,1928年南京国民政府为纪念孙中山先生,宣布将每年的植树节改在先生逝世纪念日3月12日,称为“总理逝世纪念植树式”。

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