文:闻丞 — 2015-6-2 16:54:57

【山水看自然】高山带给我们什么

  现代国家的概念自西方浸染入中国社会之前,我们只知“天下”。天下又叫做“江山”,“河山”。中国的风景,又叫做“山水”。山和水是中国人世界观中地球表面形态的最基本元素,而江河之水溯其源头,又往往在高山之麓。山,作为一种具有高大外形和屏障作用特征的地貌,在物理层面,对气候、水文方面产生深刻影响;进而在生物层面,影响生态过程和物种分布;最后,通过影响人的栖居和移徙,在人的精神层面也产生深刻的影响。
 
  高山湖畔的彩虹
 
  山与气候区分隔
 
  因为山岳对气流的导引或阻隔,中国的气候区分隔多近大型山脉。著名者如昆仑山、秦岭、龙门山、太行山、燕山和大兴安岭。水流因气流造成的降雨带和地势高下而生,山水历来不可分割。世界上海拔8000米以上的山峰共有14座,其中有过半数位于中国境内或者中国与邻国的交界处。而这些高山或坐落于喜马拉雅山山脉,或坐落于喀喇昆仑山山脉,这两座山脉都是世界上最年轻的高原——青藏高原——在第三纪迅速隆升过程中的产物。
 
  青藏高原的隆升只是中国大地数亿年间所经历的数次造山运动中的最近一次。但这一次造山运动对中国的当今的气候乃至世界的气候变化都产生了决定性的影响。此前,有另外两拨较大规模的造山运动在神州大地上演,它们与喜马拉雅造山运动一道造就了东亚今天的主要山系格局。所有这些造山运动都源于大陆板块的漂移,自二叠纪时盘古大陆开始分解时即已上演。二叠纪至三叠纪,盘古大陆渐次分离解体为南方的冈瓦纳大陆(Gondwana)和北方的劳亚大陆(Laurasia)。冈瓦纳大陆又进一步解体为几个大的块体,其中就有今天的非洲、澳大利亚、南极洲和印度次大陆的前身。
 
  2亿年前(三叠纪时期)的劳亚大陆和冈瓦纳大陆(底图来自百度百科)
 
  印度次大陆自冈瓦纳大陆中解体而出后一路向北直逼劳亚大陆,至三叠纪时两大板块前沿在海面一下初次碰撞,这一过程导致了当今中国中部一系列近东西走向的山脉的隆起。这些山脉包括秦岭、米仓山、大巴山、大别山等。上述山系经过上亿年的流水冲刷和冰川剥蚀,顶部渐渐被削减,今天我们所能见的最高峰不超过四千米。但是这些山脉今天是中国亚热带气候与暖温带气候的重要分界线,也是南北地理区显而易见的界线。
 
  印度次大陆与劳亚古陆进一步挤压,原来横亘在冈瓦纳和劳亚古陆之间的辽阔大洋成为温暖清浅的特提斯海(Tethys),燕山造山运动在此过程中上演。大兴安岭、燕山、太行山在这一阶段渐次升起,成为中国北部重要的地理单元,并成为中国温带季风气候区与温带大陆性气候区的分界线。而秦岭至大别山一线则成为中国温带季风性气候区与亚热带季风气候区的界限。而最近形成的喜马拉雅山,喀喇昆仑山和天山,则成为中国高原气候区与温带大陆性气候区、温带季风气候区和亚热带季风气候区的分界线。
 
  这些位于气候分界线上的山地,由于对水汽的截留作用,成为诸多河流的发源地。即便是天山这种位于干旱内陆的山脉,亦孕育了塔里木河这一世界最大的内陆河。青藏高原更是东亚、东南亚和南亚数条大名鼎鼎的重要河流的源头地区,这些河流包括长江、黄河、澜沧江-湄公河、怒江-萨尔温江、雅鲁藏布江-恒河、孔雀河-印度河。
 
  澜沧江流域的湿地,云南大理的洱海(李小龙 摄)
 
  山与动植物繁衍
 
  山地有时是生物扩散的障碍,但有时更是生物的庇护所或南来北往的走廊。某种意义上说,恰因为多山,中国才成为地球同纬度带上生物多样性最丰富的国家。青藏高原的隆起在地球表面从第三纪起创造了一种全新而又极具挑战性的栖息地。有一种理论认为青藏高原隆起过程中出现的高寒生境是现在很多耐寒物种演化的起始舞台。在第四纪冰期来临时,它们从这里走向欧亚大陆乃至北美、北非的广大空间。
 
  喜马拉雅山、喀喇昆仑山、兴都库什山、天山等几条宏伟山系的结合部造就了一处全球特有植物和动物分布相当富集的地区。这一山地“纽结”带在中国古代被称为“葱岭”。这在古代被商旅视为畏途,即便在现代其陆路通道也不是一条坦途。但就是这样貌似难以逾越的天堑,却成为了盘羊、雪雀、雪鸡这样的高山动物来往于欧亚之间的天路。而一路向东延伸进入沙漠中的天山,更因其雪峰融水,成为了丝绸之路的藩屏,滋养着一个个塔克拉玛干沙漠边缘的绿洲,令其成为东西交往的生物包括人类的驿站和摇篮。
 
  横断山南北纵谷并列的结构将热带河谷和寒温带高山紧密嵌套在一起。在气候变化的过程中,不同气候植被带在很小的空间范围内消长交替,使得生物有可能花很小的代价就找到新的生境,进而开始新的演化。这就是横断山成为今天世界上物种最为丰富,特有种最多的生物多样性热点地区之一的原因。而华中至华南古老的山地更在冰河时代阻挡着严酷的寒潮,其中复杂的地形造就了诸多桃花源般的小气候区。这些小气候区成为诸多第三纪孑遗植物的避难所。相应地,也成为一些中国特有动物的家园。这些山地的顶部,多多少少都会显示出一些与喜马拉雅-横断山区的相似性,从植物到动物,从大巴山到台湾的玉山。中国西南和华中的山地被誉为世界园林之母,各种各样的杜鹃花、山茶花、报春花、龙胆花以及珙桐、银杏、玉兰从这里走出,装点着全世界的花园和植物园。而这些山地,至今仍是一些世界上最美丽鸟兽的家园。如锦鸡、长尾雉、角雉、各色鹛类与朱雀,又如几种颜色黑黄各异的仰鼻猴。
 
  鹅黄灯台报春Primula cockburniana ——贡嘎山(顾垒 摄)
 
  蓝玉簪龙胆Gentiana veitchiorum ——年保玉则(顾垒 摄)
 
  珙桐Davidia involucrata ——峨眉山(顾垒 摄)
 
  山与人类文明
 
  中国的每一个民族,在原生文化体系中大约都存在对山的某种景仰。汉族有五岳封禅,藏族有神山崇拜,蒙族有敖包,满族有白山……这种与文明历史几乎同样悠久的文化现象与山对人类生活形态的影响息息相关。
 
  在蒙昧的渔猎采集时代乃至文明曙光的农耕游牧时期,山因其对风云水流的导引给人类生活带来直接而重要的影响。更有一些来自山地的特殊动植物和矿藏资源是直接供给人类生活相关的物资,如燧石、药材、木料、果蔬、猎物。有一些物资还影响到了人类的精神层面,如用于绘画的矿石颜料、用于制造礼器的金属和在中国传统文化中具有特殊意义的玉石。
 
  以上所述都是山带给人类生活的物质因素,而随着精神文明的演进,山的意象也带来的新的影响。一个地区的最高山,有时不仅是地理格局上的标志,也是精神世界中的一道脊梁。因为在神性概念开始出现在人的思想中觉醒时,作为高耸在天与人居之间的高山,往往被视为人间与天堂的桥梁。于是,在欧亚大陆西端,基督教传入之前,人们崇敬着生活在奥林匹斯山上的诸神。在新月地带,摩西从西奈山上带来神示,带领着他的部族寻求应许的迦南之地。古代埃及的金字塔巍峨高耸,有人说那是在模仿山的形态。在古代中国,天帝天后所居之所乃在瑶池昆仑——那仿佛就是雪山之下碧湖辉映的青藏高原景象?高山不仅沟通着天地,更塑造着人的审美观。无论东西方,都有人用山比喻男性的坚毅,用与山相依的水比喻女性的柔美。在中国文化中,华中华南雄奇秀险、云雾缭绕的山峰一直是追求脱俗的士人的精神家园。山,还在某种程度上塑造了人的审美观。
 
  雪山碧湖辉映的青藏高原(乔治-夏勒 摄)
 
  山,作为一个最直白简明的汉字,却满载着物质与精神的厚重,是一本永远读不完的大书。
 
  云海里的山,年保玉则
 
    原刊载于《森林与人类》2014年第9期
 
  《山水看自然》系列科普文章由保护工作者围绕自然生态话题撰写,带你解读“山水”,领略自然。
 
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碳汇与水源保护项目

山和水是中国人世界观中地球表面形态的最基本元素,而江河之水溯其源头,又往往在高山之麓。山既作用于气候和水文,又影响了物种的发育和分布,甚至对人类文明也产生了深刻影响。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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