文:施奇静 刘炎林 — 2015-6-2 15:21:27

缅中边境上的中国“买买买”

  ——野生猫科动物贸易研究
 
  编译自:Nijman V, Shepherd C R. Trade in tigers and other wild cats in Mong La and Tachilek, Myanmar–A tale of two border towns[J]. Biological Conservation, 2015, 182: 1-7.
 
  ▲缅甸市集上正在出售的小型猫科动物豹猫
 
  发表于《Biological Conservation》2015年2月刊的一项研究强调了中国对猫科动物非法贸易的影响。该项研究由英国牛津布鲁克斯大学(Oxford Brooks University)研究人员文森特-尼基曼(Vincent Nijman)领衔完成。研究显示,近年来,越来越多的野生猫科动物制品从缅甸销往中国。
 
  在食肉目哺乳动物中,猫科动物肉食性最强,进化最为成功。它们遍布除南极洲外的全球各大陆,高踞食物链顶端。但由于盗猎、栖息地破坏等原因,这些魅力非凡的动物分布范围和种群数量日益减少。它们的生存正受到越来越严重的威胁。在过去一百年中,爪哇虎、里海虎、巴厘虎、巴基斯坦沙猫、台湾云豹、亚洲猎豹、北非狮、亚洲狮等近十种大中型猫科动物已经灭绝;野生虎的数量从10万头下降到可能3千头。现存的37种猫科动物,除了家猫,均被世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)列为濒危和稀有物种。但在缅甸,来自云豹、豹猫、豹、虎和亚洲金猫等珍稀物种的爪子、头骨、牙齿、皮肤往往作为纪念品或护身符公开售卖。
 
  ▲中缅边境市集上正在出售的虎皮和虎骨酒,酒坛里有两具虎骨架。该研究中,80%的调查发现虎制品的销售,说明超过200头虎被杀害。
 
  缅甸是《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)》的签约国,禁止虎豹制品贸易。然而,在缅甸边境城镇大其力(Tachilek),当局未把非法贸易作为优先考虑的问题;而在勐拉(Mong La),中央政府甚至无力掌控这座小城——边境小城混乱的政局使得公约的效力大打折扣。
 
  但在当地政局改善之前,我们并非无能为力。作为迎合外国市场的边境城市,邻国的执法情况对这里的非法野生动物贸易大有影响。尼基曼等人的这项研究发现,在与泰国接壤的大其力,老虎等野生猫科动物制品的贸易正逐渐萎缩,2000年的调查发现有35家店铺销售此类制品,到了2013年仅存6家。而在靠近中国的勐拉,近年来店铺数量却大大增加,2006年仅有6家,到2014年已增加到21家。
 
  “大其力的贸易萎缩可能与泰国加强执法有关。中国一侧没有采取类似行动。”作者指出,“中国购买力的提升带动了勐拉的野生动物贸易。”
 
  ▲缅泰边境城镇大其力(Tachilek)
 
  ▲缅中边境城镇孟拉(Mong La)
 
  这项研究同时指出,所有野生猫科动物的保护状况都不容乐观。在缅甸,大型猫科动物绝大部分受法律保护,而小型猫科动物中只有纹猫和亚洲金猫是保护动物。但在非法贸易市场上,这些鲜为人知的小型猫科动物并非作为大型猫科动物的替代品,而是与大型猫科动物一起,被猎杀、销售。“无论体型大小,所有猫科动物的数量都在下降。” 作者写道。
 
  稍早前李娟和吕植发表于同一刊物的雪豹研究,也揭示了贸易对猫科动物种群数量的影响值得警惕(Li J, Lu Z. Snow leopard poaching and trade in China 2000–2013[J]. Biological Conservation, 2014, 176: 207-211.)。雪豹制品消费正逐渐从当地传统消费转型为销往外地的奢侈品消费。
 
  近年来,雪豹吸引了越来越多科学家、保护工作者、政府和公众的关注,其偷猎趋势似乎有所改善。但李娟指出:“并非所有新关注都是积极的,非法贸易网站的出现可能是个危险信号。”
 
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雪豹

春节假期,你是否选择了边境游?近年来,越来越多的野生猫科动物制品从缅甸销往中国,与此形成对比的是加强执法的缅泰边境上野生动物贸易的萎缩。

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