文:本站原创 — 2015-6-2 15:13:51

看图识羊:羊年到,你认识几种“羊”?

  羊年即将到来,但是你认识羊吗?
 
  如果你心目中的羊局限于这样:
 
 
  或者这样:
 
 
  那么你有必要继续看下去。
 
  其实,可以认为“羊”是指【牛科羊亚科】的所有动物。牛科包括了牛亚科、羚亚科和羊亚科,这三个亚科可以根据它们的角来初步分辨,牛亚科的角不具环纹,羚亚科的角较为直立,而羊亚科通常具有带环纹、先朝后弯的角,比如上面的山羊和绵羊。羊亚科共有13属,其中8属分布于中国。我们来分别认识下这8属的一些代表性种类吧:
 
  羚牛(Budorcas taxicolor
 
 
  有没有搞错,这是羊?没错,这个头似马、蹄似羊、角似牛、尾似驴,俗称“六不像”的动物,属于羊亚科【羚牛属】,实在是一种大野羊。它又称扭角羚,是不丹的国兽,但主要分布区其实在中国西部。因为生境破坏、栖息地破碎化、过度捕猎等原因,在中国,羚牛的所有亚种都已濒危,被列为国家一级保护动物。
 
  羚牛叫声似羊,但性情又粗暴如牛。如果近距离突然遭遇,它们可能袭击人类,曾经有一些猎人被羚牛所杀。所以,不是所有的“羊”都温顺哦。
 
  赤斑羚(Naemorhedus baileyi
 
 
  如果你还以为羊都生活在草原上,那就请看这位——赤斑羚,也叫“红山羊”,属于羊亚科【斑羚属】,是典型的林栖动物,终年栖息于高山、亚高山常绿阔叶林和针阔叶混交林内。它的名字得于它美丽的毛色,头部、颈、体背以及四肢均为红棕色的赤斑羚,远看很像赤狐。
 
  但这美丽的皮毛也给它带来了杀身之祸。尽管赤斑羚生性机警,步履轻盈,但它特殊的习性使猎人对它的追踪变得容易——它习惯在早晨和午后觅食、饮水,饮水地方较为固定,猎人只需要“守溪待羊”就可以。过度捕猎、森林采伐已使赤斑羚成为濒危物种,被列为国家一级保护动物。
 
  中华鬣羚(Capricornis milneedwardsii
 
 
  中华鬣羚体高腿长,毛色深,具有向后弯的短角。它在个头上比羚牛小得多,但比斑羚要大。属于羊亚科【鬣羚属】,之所以叫“鬣羚”,是因为它颈背部有像野猪一样的鬣毛,这些长而蓬松的鬣毛延伸成为背部的粗毛脊。
 
  在中国,它的分布曾遍及中部和东南部,可以分为两个亚种,四川亚种的鬣毛呈黑色,而华南亚种的鬣毛呈灰白色。但因为中药原料的利用、人类定居侵占栖息地等原因,现在在中国南方省份已经难觅中华鬣羚踪迹。它既是国家二级保护动物,也是CITES附录I物种。
 
  藏羚羊(Pantholops hodgsonli
 
 
  大名鼎鼎的藏羚羊,最引人注目的特征就是雄性藏羚细长而相对直立的角了。它属于羊亚科【藏羚属】,藏羚属比较偏离进化主线,有时因外形被归入羚亚科,但很多DNA研究证据显示它应该属于羊亚科。
 
  藏羚羊因价格昂贵的底绒被盗猎份子盯上,一度严重濒危。1994年1月18日,青海治多县西部工委书记索南达杰,为保护藏羚羊,在可可西里与盗猎分子搏斗,壮烈牺牲。藏羚羊和可可西里也由此成为关注热点,得到前所未有的保护。2008年北京奥运会的吉祥物之一“迎迎”,正是以藏羚羊为原型。现在,它是国家一级保护动物,数量也因为保护及时而有所恢复。
 
  藏羚羊性怯懦机警,听觉和视觉发达,常出没在人迹罕至的地方,极难接近。这也就难怪当年经过PS合成的照片——藏羚羊从正好有火车通过的青藏铁路桥下穿越——会获得新闻图片大奖了。
 
  喜马拉雅塔尔羊(Hemitragus jemiahicus
 
 
  属于羊亚科【塔尔羊属】,看名字就知道,它生活在喜马拉雅山区。事实上,它主要栖息在喜马拉雅山脉南坡,中国是其边缘分布区。一眼看去它像穿了褐色毛衣的山羊,但仔细看看它跟山羊还是有明显差别的,看图片的雄塔尔羊,你发现了么?没错,塔尔羊的公羊不长胡须,反倒是绕着脖子长了一圈蓬松的鬃毛,这身打扮倒是相当有艺术气息啊。
 
  可能因为少见的缘故,中国直到1974年才发现喜马拉雅塔尔羊的分布,是所有中国土生羊中发现得最晚的一种。它能适应严寒多雨的气候,通常栖息在有树木的山坡上,活动于崎岖的裸岩山地及林缘。但由于分布区狭窄,活动范围小,再加上捕猎和家畜竞争的压力,喜马拉雅塔尔羊数量稀少,估计仅有500只,是中国的国家一级保护动物。
 
  北山羊(Capra sibirica
 
 
  刚说完不长胡须的雄塔尔羊,就来了一位雌雄都有角、有须的动物——北山羊。它与家山羊同为羊亚科【山羊属】,是体型巨大的山羊,也叫“原羊”。北山羊角形前宽后窄,前面有明显的横棱,它每增长一岁,角就增加一个棱,年龄越大,它的角也越长。尤其是雄羊壮观的、向后弯的大角,可以长达1m,当它们为领域而争斗的时候,这独特的长角就是它们的武器。在新疆古代的岩画中也常常出现北山羊的形象——因为它头上的“弯刀”实在太有特点了。
 
  在中国,北山羊分布于甘肃、内蒙、新疆等地。但上世纪60-80年代,当地人口剧增,对肉食的大量需求、高山牧场的大规模开发和牧民的乱捕滥猎使北山羊的种群数量急剧下降,在青海祈连山、东昆仑山及甘肃西部的种群消失。在所有其他地区,北山羊也处于濒危状态,是国家一级保护动物。
 
  盘羊(Ovis ammon
 
 
  见过家山羊的亲戚,怎能遗漏了家绵羊的野生亲缘种——盘羊呢?它和绵羊同属于羊亚科【盘羊属】,主要分布在中国的西北省份。雄羊有巨大、弯曲的角,总长度达100-170cm,向下和向前弯曲超过360度,角的长度和粗度随年龄而增大。这盘曲的角也是盘羊用于防御或争斗的武器。
 
  盘羊和岩羊一样是雪豹的主要食物。但与岩羊相比其爬山技巧比较差,因此它更喜欢占据开阔的平缓坡地,在逃跑时一般也避免逃向太陡峭的山坡。在中国,它们的种群大多小而破碎,所有亚种濒危,是国家二级保护动物。
 
  岩羊(Pseudois nayaur
 
 
  属于羊亚科【岩羊属】。体型中等,形态介于绵羊和山羊之间——体形像绵羊,角更像山羊。它的角不呈螺旋形,而较多地从头部向外扭,其横断面大致呈三角形。岩羊主要分布在中国西部,虽然在1989年被重新列入我国的野生动物保护名单,是国家二级保护动物,但偷猎、人为干扰仍是威胁它生存的主要原因。
 
  作为雪豹的主要食物,岩羊是三江源最为常见的动物之一。在与盘羊同域分布的地方,岩羊更喜欢禾本科草类多的地方,而盘羊则更中意非禾本科草类占优势的地方。岩羊攀登山峦的本领在动物中是无与伦比的,受惊时能在乱石间迅速跳跃,并攀上险峻陡峭的山崖,真是“羊”如其名。
 
  羊亚科可以分为岩羚族(Rupicaprini)、羊族(Caprini)和麝牛族(Ovibovini),在狭义的说法里,仅把“羊族”归为羊。上面所说的羊亚科8属中,只有最后的塔尔羊属、山羊属、盘羊属、岩羊属这4属,属于羊族。
 
  你一定注意到,这些野生“羊”都是国家一级或者二级保护动物。它们的“家乡”都在寒冷的高山、亚高山地区,见它们一面不容易。但即使“高冷”到如此地步,即使在中国有十二分之一的人口自称“属羊”,即使有幸看见它们的人都盛赞它们的帅气、壮美,它们还是一个一个地成为濒危类群。也许有一天,十二生肖里会只剩下驯化了的和神话里的动物。好在,藏羚羊数量的恢复,给了我们一点希望。
 
 
  据《中国兽类野外手册》、《中国物种红色名录》等整理
 
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自然学堂

除了绵羊、山羊这两种常见的饲养动物,你还知道野生的“羊”类吗?快快来补习,把中国土生土长的羊儿们都认一遍吧!

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