文:本站原创 — 2015-6-2 14:45:03

村民小组行动:在云南白马雪山寻找雪豹

  云南白马雪山
 
  澜沧江守护行动
 
  在白马雪山寻找“雪山精灵”
 
  雪豹是生活在冰雪高原的濒危物种,曾在云南白马雪山上活动过的“雪山精灵”是否仍然住在这片土地上?白马雪山位于云南德钦县境内,是澜沧江与金沙江的分水岭。来自白马雪山国家级自然保护区周边社区的村民小组,将展开保护区内雪豹种群的调查,寻觅它的踪迹,了解它的生存状况,从而更好地保护它。
 
  “高山之王”雪豹,终年生活在雪线附近,昼伏夜出,行动迅捷,身手不凡,被誉作“雪山精灵”。雪豹位于高原食物链的顶端,它的存在,意味着这个区域有着完整的食物链,所以雪豹的生存状态好坏是整个生态系统健康与否的重要指示。但它们和大熊猫一样,正面临着极大的生存威胁,1972年雪豹就被世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)列为濒危动物,也是国家一级保护动物。
 
  “雪山精灵”消失了?
 
  雪豹只在青藏高原和临近地区栖息,在云南境内,白马雪山国家级自然保护区是雪豹的主要栖息地。雪豹主要活动生活在保护区内海拔4500米至5000米的永久冰雪高山裸岩及寒漠带的环境中,捕食岩羊、斑羚、盘羊或旱獭、野兔、血雉等,有时也袭击牦牛群。
 
  白马雪山保护区成立之初的上世纪八十年代,村民进山采集药材、野生菌类或放牧时,曾发现过雪豹的踪迹;1996年白马雪山进行综合科学考察时,有村民称在野外看到过雪豹;在中科院昆明动物研究所也陈列有来自德钦的雪豹幼体标本。但最近十年来,并没有人发现雪豹的活动踪迹。
 
  雪豹的活动范围缩小到了人类更难触及的区域,是难以发现雪豹踪迹的可能原因。一方面人为活动的加剧,例如道路建设、林业开发等活动会干扰甚至破坏野生动物的栖息地,另一方面全球气候变暖也可能使得雪山冰雪融化,雪线上移,雪豹只能在更高海拔的冰雪地带活动。
 
  为了更好地了解白马雪山保护区内雪豹的生存状况,保护这一珍稀濒危动物,云南迪庆州德钦县的一个村民小组将在白马雪山保护区开展雪豹资源及其生境状况的调查。
 
  红外相机在三江源地区拍下的雪豹
 
  寻找雪豹,村民参与的科学调查
 
  此次雪豹调查的团队是德钦县叶日村永堆村的村民小组,他们就生活在保护区周边,和雪豹共享同一片土地,因而他们的保护行动显得格外地难能可贵。只有当社区积极地参与到生态保护中去,才能形成自发的、长久的保护力量。
 
  肖林、斯那此里和鲁茸培初,是项目团队的主要负责人。肖林是一位林业工程师,从事野生动物摄影和调查的工作,斯那此里在保护区德钦管理分局工作,而鲁茸培初则是叶日村村民小组的护林员。
 
  项目前期将对保护区内的社区居民进行访谈,了解雪豹的可能踪迹。此外,由于参与调查的人员有来自保护区的工作人员,也有来自社区的普通村民,他们的文化水平参差不齐,需要进行集中的技术培训,以提高他们的调查能力及设备使用能力。
 
  随后,团队将结合社区访谈结果和已有的雪豹分布模拟数据,利用地理信息系统工具,确定雪豹可能的活动范围。接下来在可能的活动范围内展开痕迹调查,即寻找雪豹的足迹、粪便等,以了解雪豹的具体活动区域。
 
  找到雪豹活动痕迹之后,将合理布设红外相机。红外相机能够在有动物经过时自动感应并拍摄下来,是监测野生动物的“利器”。项目预计将在明年5-12月利用红外相机展开持续监测。同时他们还会调查雪豹猎物种群状况,即岩羊、旱獭等动物的数量,以更好地了解雪豹的生存条件。
 
  项目后期,通过对雪豹调查数据的整理、统计、分析,将最终形成一份详实的白马雪山境内雪豹种群的调查报告,并制定出相应的保护方案。
 
  团队希望通过项目的开展,能够在社区居民的共同参与下,获取雪豹在白马雪山保护区内活动的影像资料,掌握其活动区域和种群数量,以及雪豹面临的主要威胁,同时提高社区居民的保护意识,引导居民积极参与雪豹资源的保护。
 
  团队
 
  云南省迪庆州德钦县奔子栏镇叶日村永堆村民小组
 
  主要负责人: 
 
  肖林:云南省迪庆州德钦县人,男,现年46岁,学历函授本科,林业工程师,从事野生动物摄影及调查工作。
 
  斯那此里:白马雪山国家级自然保护区德钦管理分局,工程师。
 
  鲁茸培初:叶日村民小组护林员。
 
  本文由夏凡根据项目建议书整理
 
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雪豹

雪豹是生活在冰雪高原的濒危物种,曾在云南白马雪山上活动过的“雪山精灵”,它是否仍然住在这片土地上?周边社区的村民小组,将展开雪豹种群调查,寻觅它的踪迹。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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