文:本站原创 — 2015-6-2 12:38:27

正在消失的医药传统——拉祜族珍稀植物药物调查与保护

  集市医药摊点
 
  澜沧江守护行动
 
  古老民族的古老医药文化
 
  ——云南拉祜族珍稀植物药物资源调查与保护
 
  生活在澜沧江流域的古老民族拉祜(hù)族,有着珍贵的传统药物植物资源及医药知识,是澜沧江流域重要的生态产品和文化瑰宝,如今却面临着悄然消失的危险。系统地整理出文字资料,探索珍稀植物药物的栽培方式,促进传统医药知识和文化的交流,是为了保护和可持续利用这一珍贵资源的尝试和努力。
 
  村民采药
 
  正在消失的拉祜族医药传统
 
  鲜为外界所知的古老民族拉祜族,主要分布在云南省的思茅、临沧两地区。在近14亿的全国人口中,拉祜族仅占40余万。和其他少数民族一样,拉祜族有着自己独特的语言、信仰、民俗、舞蹈等传统民族文化,而拉祜族的医药传统更是一笔重要而珍稀的遗产。在上世纪80年代的中药材资源调查显示,拉祜族聚居区有药用资源植物2000余种,其中拉祜族药265种。
 
  拉祜族有着深厚的民族医药传统,拉祜族村寨居民对植物的认识相当敏锐,他们的医药对解决甚至现代医学都束手无策的疾病(如痛风、肿瘤、高血压等)发挥了重要作用,拉祜族民间医生更是深受信任和爱戴。
 
  然而拉祜族并没有文字,缺少医学文献记录,族医的传承全靠口传心授,外来文化的冲击加上保护意识的缺失,拉祜族珍稀的药物植物资源正在渐渐消失,拉祜族医继承人的缺乏也导致医药传统知识流失严重。
 
  为了不让如此宝贵的财富遗憾地悄然消失,有着硕士学历的杨久云决定带领她的团队探索保护和传播拉祜族传统医药知识及资源的可行之路。
 
  爬树龙
 
  扫把茶
 
  羊蹄甲
 
  野生黄精
 
  保护并发展拉祜族医药资源
 
  如何使用并保护少数民族珍稀乃至濒危的植物药物,实现可持续地利用,是一个难题。杨久云的项目团队决定,在收集整理传统植物药物资源和相关文化的基础上,筛选出几种拉祜族珍稀植物药,在其原来生长的生态系统中进行栽培示范,并通过开展培训班的方式,尝试保护并可持续利用传统的药物植物资源。为此,项目团队制定出了详细的项目实行计划:
 
  现有资料的收集汇总是第一步。团队将通过多个渠道和角度查阅大量相关资料,收集有拉祜族医药的全部史料及相关文献资料。
 
  由于文字记载有限,团队还将亲自走访拉祜族医药卫生部门及其聚居区,并向相关学者及其他权威人士,请教该民族医药的相关问题,综合所有信息调查拉祜族的植物药资源,同时拍摄图片资料。
 
  通往拉祜族村寨的路
 
  与指导老师一同山间寻药
 
  随后便进入项目的主体阶段:资料整理、药物筛选、珍稀药物种植探索。具体工作主要是整理相关资料,并从中去粗取精,分析与汇总,从中筛选几种常用珍稀药物或濒危药物,选取一个珍稀植物生长地所临近的村落为试验点,将药物在此试验点的生态系统中进行示范种植,探索其使用与保护并行的可行方式。
 
  最后,除了一份详实全面的调查报告,项目团队还将举办培训班,来传授成功的种植方法和合理使用方法,交流保护与使用的经验,使成功的栽培和科学的利用方式得到推广,从而实现珍稀民族药物资源的保护和传承。为了让更多的人了解、支持拉祜族医药传统资源的保护,团队还将印发宣传册,向公众传播该民族医药知识与文化及可行的保护途径。
 
  而为了形成长效的保护和利用机制,使拉祜族的当地百姓真正受益,团队希望推动成立“村社药用植物保护和栽培管理协会”或合作社,通过组织当地民间医生和民众成立这样的协会或合作社,一方面可以举办定期培训,提高社区居民对珍稀资源的保护意识,宣传合理使用方法,进行药物的生态示范种植;另一方面,更能促进拉祜族民间经验的交流,如药物资源的传统保护和管理经验、传统药物文化的保护与传承经验等,使拉祜族珍贵的医药传统能够长久地流传并发挥作用。
 
  山林
 
  9人团队
 
  杨久云,女,硕士,中级,项目组织、资源调查、资料编撰
 
  诸锡斌,男,硕士,教授,项目指导
 
  薛云,男,学士,主任药师,植物药资源调查与分类指导
 
  李尚雨,男,博士,副研究员,植物药传统知识调查
 
  苗靳,男,博士,植物药传统知识培训
 
  袁圆,女,博士,药物资源知识培训
 
  李强,男,硕士,讲师,文献检索
 
  胡希琼,女,大专,护士,医药传统知识调查与培训
 
  刀蕊,女,中专,医士,医药传统知识调查
 
  本文由夏凡根据项目建议书整理
 
  湄公河(澜沧江)是亚洲最重要的跨国水系之一,丰富的生物多样性为流域内七千万人提供了多种生态服务。然而近几十年来,流域内的生物多样性和生态系统服务在气候变化和对自然资源的过度开采下加速丧失。
 
  2014年6月,山水自然保护中心发起“澜沧江保护基金”赠款项目,对有兴趣在澜沧江流域开展生态与文化多样性保护工作的社区、教育或科研机构、民间组织\团体、社会企业提供资助、科学指导、能力建设、交流合作,并组建“澜沧江保护联盟”。“澜沧江守护行动”系列文章,将介绍部分入围项目,展示他们尚未广泛为人所知的守护行动。
 
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碳汇与水源保护项目

生活在澜沧江流域的古老民族拉祜族,有着珍贵的传统药物植物资源及医药知识,如今却面临着悄然消失的危险。

项目团队

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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