文:本站原创 — 2015-6-2 11:43:37

保护如何可能,后会如何有期

 
  青藏高原上建起了大面积的保护区,成效如何?
  大规模围栏建设,对藏羚羊有何影响?
  野生动物“肇事”补偿,能否有效化解人兽冲突?
  传统文化如何推动野生动物保护?
 
  1月8日晚,山水自然保护中心在北京鸿芷咖啡馆举办的贺岁沙龙“后会无期——青藏高原野生动物保护的困境与出路”登场,山水雪豹项目负责人刘炎林,以自己在青藏高原近十年的研究和保护工作,为到场的60多位听众讲述了围绕藏羚羊、棕熊、雪豹和野牦牛发生的一系列故事,探讨“保护如何可能?”
 
  无人区外的保护困境
 
  在青藏高原,保护如何可能?刘炎林说,对于可可西里、羌塘这样的无人区,野生动物与人是分离的,需考虑如何避免人为干扰。在过去的二十多年中,无人区建立了面积广大的保护区,有效抑制了无人区中的偷猎行为,而且取缔了保护区中的矿产开发活动。藏羚羊数量的回升,即是保护成效的表现之一。但是,野生动物的活动范围不仅限于无人区内。
 
  而对于无人区之外的广大区域,刘炎林说,野生动物生活在人类主导的环境中,需要考虑如何实现共存。
 
  在他分享的“藏羚羊与围栏”故事中讲到,自2005年以来,因为草场承包到户或者湿地保护,藏羚羊的冬季交配地建立了大量围栏,阻碍了藏羚羊的迁徙,甚至导致藏羚羊的死亡。他在西藏那曲地区双湖和尼玛的研究也发现,在保护区外围栏多、家畜多的地方,野驴数量很多,藏羚羊和野牦牛却完全没有见到;与之相邻的保护区内围栏少、家畜少的地方,野驴、藏羚羊、野牦牛都有发现。
 
  在他讲述的“棕熊与房屋”故事中,自上世纪90年代末以来牧民们逐渐定居,冬天住在冬季草场的房子里,夏天就搬到夏季草场的帐篷中。于是在夏天, 棕熊就会频繁进入无人居住的房屋。在青海玉树州西部的索加乡,80%以上的房屋都曾遭遇棕熊入室,户均损失达1500元,占当地纯收入的一半。尽管藏族民众素有不杀生的理念,甚至会放生抓到的仓鼠,但若熊“舅舅”不请自来,报复性猎杀就难以禁绝。
 
  以棕熊破坏房屋为代表的人兽冲突,是青藏高原普遍又日益严重的保护问题。西藏2006年出台补偿办法,每年补偿金额高达数千万。但这种事后的经济补偿是一个无底洞,不能为牧民开展事前防范提供动力,而且“传统上,牧民会把野生动物造成的损失视为生活风险的一部分,野生动物国有的观念却会降低民众对野生动物的容忍度。”刘炎林说, 长远来看,问题的关键是社会各界如何帮助牧民与棕熊长期共存,这需要牧民、政府部门、研究机构和社会大众的戮力合作。
 
  一座寺庙附近的红外相机监测到的棕熊
 
  云塔村的故事:当地民众的参与是保护的出路
 
  两种区域中的青藏高原野生动物保护都面临巨大的挑战,出路在哪里呢?
 
  刘炎林说,在青海年保玉则地区,有一种名为藏鹀的鸟类。在20多位宗教领袖的支持下,将藏鹀奉为神鸟,当地人自发开始对其的保护。“神鸟”藏鹀,也成为了能够“自己保护自己”的鸟。
 
  而在玉树州云塔村,山水与当地村民一起开展雪豹监测项目。2011年,云塔人成立了监测巡护队,设定固定的观测点,每个月定时定点计数雪豹的主要食物 ——岩羊的数量,观察变化。2013年秋天开始,又安放了红外相机开始雪豹的监测。监测发现,云塔“神山”周围的野生动物数量是最多的。
 
  在做这些工作的过程中,当地百姓恰好开始看到雪豹,他们也非常开心,觉得是山神喜欢他们所做的工作,因而更加积极地投入到雪豹监测、保护的工作中来。
 
  云塔村牧民监测队
 
  云塔村为什么愿意让最优秀的小伙子参与到保护工作中呢?刘炎林认为一方面是当地盛产虫草,随着收入水平的提高,很多人选择离开家乡搬到城市居住,村长希望能有事情聚合人心,雪豹保护就提供了这样的契机。
 
  另一方面,云塔人关心如何保护当地环境不被破坏,尤其是不被开矿破坏。在牧民看来,开矿引起了人畜的许多疾病甚至死亡,而且很多矿山还是神山。云塔人希望能做些事情来抵御开矿大潮,保护自己的家乡,保护家乡的神山。这样的努力也起到了成效,一个好消息是近期内这个区域不会再有开矿活动。
 
  “这个故事提示我们,青藏高原野生动物的长期生存,一方面取决于当地人要不要保护这些动物,另一方面取决于外来人要不要开矿、要不要建围栏、要不要修路。”刘炎林说,云塔村的案例象征着高原野生动物保护的希望。但是,“三江源有1200个村庄,如何让这些村庄如云塔村一样投入动物保护工作中?如何调动当地传统文化的力量?”
 
  刘炎林还认为,青藏高原的野生动物资源如此丰富,对它们研究还太少,保护工作中有很多信息空缺。“可能还没有一个民间智库专门研究青藏高原的野生动物问题。我梦想有优秀的伙伴、足够的资金,把青藏高原的野生动物研究一遍,为保护提供有用的信息,那就太爽了。”
 
  感谢所有与山水一起分享这个美好夜晚的听众朋友。我们准备了本次沙龙的实录(可点击“阅读原文”查看)和延伸阅读材料,将通过邮件发送给大家。也欢迎参加活动的朋友们将感想和建议反馈给我们。
 
  60多位听众听刘炎林讲述研究与保护故事
 
  听众提问
 
  一位小听众获得一瓶“熊猫蜂蜜”作为奖品
 
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雪豹

青藏高原上建起了大面积的保护区,成效如何?大规模围栏建设,对藏羚羊有何影响?野生动物“肇事”补偿,能否有效化解人兽冲突?传统文化如何推动野生动物保护?

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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