文:赵翔 — 2015-6-2 11:02:09

人兽冲突该如何破解?

  ?
  红外相机在三江源地区拍下的棕熊
 
  近年来,人兽冲突逐渐成为社会热点问题,青海三江源区域也不例外。在三江源,人兽冲突具体表现为雪豹、棕熊、狼等伤害家畜、人以及破坏房屋等。
 
  人兽冲突问题的加剧,有肇事事件增加和报告性事件增加两种情况。前者可能是野生动物与人类、牲畜栖息地选择重叠,野外食物减少造成。后者可能是在国家法律完善,野生动物成为“有主之物”以及补偿日益普及后,牧民有选择性的举报以期获得更多补偿。
 
  玉树藏族自治州哈秀乡岗日村的调查显示,在过去一年中,28户牧民有26户遭受了棕熊进屋的侵扰。棕熊通过破窗、挖墙、砸门等方法进屋后,对牧民存放的干肉、酥油、面粉大快朵颐,留下一片狼藉而去。
 
  如何尝试解决人兽冲突这一问题?从主客体区分,可视为民生保障与生态保护两个目标。一方面,野生动物的肇事给牧民带来了一定程度的经济财产损失,需要加以补偿安抚;另一方面,肇事也反过来给野生动物带来了报复性猎杀的风险,需要通过努力降低这一风险。
 
  如今,全国各省(区、市)相继颁发了《野生动物肇事补偿办法》等法规。这些法规无一例外,都是从民生保障的角度,希望给当地群众以野生动物肇事之后的补偿,并且认为此类补偿能够起到缓解群众负面情绪,降低报复性猎杀从而保护野生动物的作用。但事实真的如此吗?
 
  事后补偿能在多大程度上缓解矛盾?
 
  根据《青海省重点保护陆生野生动物造成人身财产损失补偿办法》中第十一条规定:造成牲畜死亡的,补偿金按当地市场价格的50%补偿。由此可知,补偿金额仅能够弥补群众的部分损失,既无法解决群众的实际损失,更无从解决群众在选择保护后所丧失的机会成本。这就可能导致报复性猎杀的出现。
 
保护陆生野生动物造成人身财产损失补偿办法》第十一条
 
  在玉树某个村的访谈显示,因为熊的冲突,过去两年分别有两头熊在进屋寻找食物后被牧民报复性猎杀,而这两头熊随后被以超过两万元的单价卖出。而高达两三万元一只的雪豹标本,很多时候也是报复性猎杀的产物。
 
  是选择举报获得部分补偿并拥有道德优越感,还是采取报复性猎杀杜绝肇事并获得额外收益?牧民往往会选择后者。
 
  报复性猎杀在监管和尺寸把握上的缺陷,容易让牧民在野生动物保护法律之外寻求到灰色地带。但导致这一问题的核心是:野生动物肇事补偿未能实现牧民选择保护之后的收益问题。从保护的角度来看,单纯的野生动物肇事补偿无法从根本上解决报复性猎杀问题,两者之间也绝非单纯的线性因果关系。
 
  成本“黑洞”导致补偿工作裹足不前
 
  由于偏远区域群众的民生保障涉及地区稳定这一敏感神经,民生保障毋庸置疑是地方政府的首要考虑因素,但民生问题的核心是成本问题。
 
  据玉树兽医站统计,玉树州2013年约有300万头牦牛、100万头绵羊。北京大学李娟博士2012年的研究显示,在三江源地区,人兽冲突导致的牦牛死亡率为4%,绵羊死亡率为11%,户均损失达到2.8万元。据此推算,玉树每年人兽冲突导致牦牛死亡12万头、绵羊死亡约11万头。而根据《青海省陆生野生动物造成人身财产损失补偿办法》第十一条规定,即使按平均每头牦牛补偿1000元、每头绵羊补偿500元计算,再加上10%的政府操作成本,玉树每年需投入2亿元。根据《2013年青海省国民经济和社会发展统计公报》,青海省1900万头家畜,年补偿金额需8亿元左右。
 
  从民生角度,人兽冲突是普遍问题,野生动物造成的损失对牧民都是负担。政府难以根据人兽冲突的轻重、损失的多少进行“选择性补偿”,这意味着政府只能选择“一肩挑”。
 
  三江源二期工程8年预算160亿元,其中80亿元用于草原生态奖补,其余每年预算约10亿元。如果将8亿元花在人兽冲突补偿上,将是一笔很大的负担。这是很多区域人兽冲突肇事补偿在经历了数年“试点”之后依然无法全面铺开的原因:补偿是个无底洞。
 
  去年6月,青海杂多县一只雪豹跳进牧民的牛圈吃掉一只小牛后,难以再跳出牛圈,被藏犬围困,幸而被牧民保护起来。
 
 
  熊“光顾”后的牧民房屋
 
  津巴布韦:让本地社区从保护动物中获益
 
  在野生动物资源丰富的非洲,报复性猎杀会在野生动物所有权完全归于国家后得到激化。如果当地牧民认为野生动物既不属于他们也无法带来收益,容忍度会降低,从而催生报复性猎杀。东非的肯尼亚和坦桑尼亚的野生动物归于国有后,半个世纪来猎杀猖獗,大型国家公园内的野生动物种群都有所衰减。
 
  但津巴布韦的案例可以借鉴。
 
  津巴布韦野生动物主管部门在拥有监管权的同时,将野生动物的管理,包括旅游和狩猎的权利交给当地村落。这种尝试既让社区恢复对野生动物的拥有感,并让社区通过开展旅游和狩猎获得直接收益。在这里,野生动物不再成为本地居民的“危险因素”,而是他们可以收益的“资源”,而对“资源”的可持续利用,有效地保护了物种的平衡系统,将有利于社区获得长期的收益,从而催发社区的保护行动。这样的做法在过去的若干年里有效减缓了对大象的猎杀。
 
  三江源的野生动物保护可以参考、学习津巴布韦的成功案例,在不改变野生动物所有权的前提下,将野生动物的保护责任下放到社区,重塑社区对于野生动物的拥有感,并基于社区的保护成效进行奖励,让牧民能从主动保护中获益。
 
  囊谦雪豹基金:鼓励家畜管理
 
  另一个案例来自山水自然保护中心自2011年开始在玉树囊谦县,一个雪豹主要栖息地开展的“家畜保险”试点工作。
 
  因为涉及补偿问题,先由当地林业主管部门、山水自然保护中心、寺院等共同出资建立“雪豹基金”本金,再由牧民以每头牦牛2元的价格“投保”。当家畜被雪豹袭击后,经当地的社区管理小组鉴定,将从雪豹基金中支付一定的补偿。
 
  “雪豹基金”:牧民要给自己的牛羊上保险
 
  “雪豹基金最重要的价值是激发了社区自我管理家畜的行动,我们规定如果一户人家全年都没有家畜遭受雪豹的袭击,将获得一头牦牛赔偿额的奖励。”当时负责雪豹基金工作的尹杭说道。
 
  经过长期的调查,山水自然保护中心发现,对家畜疏于管理是造成野生动物对家畜袭击加剧的主要原因之一。“传统的放牧方式,需要牧民全天跟随家畜,这样野生动物就不太敢贸然袭击,而随着生活条件的改善,牧民开始选择用望远镜遥望牲畜,骑摩托车早晚赶牛。”尹杭解释说。
 
  可以学习的还有北美、加拿大等地近百年来与熊的斗智斗勇。为了防止熊靠近生活区或者进屋,居民们选择使用加锁的垃圾箱,每家门前的果树也将在未完全成熟时得到采摘,并准备锣鼓等工具,在发现熊靠近时响起。
 
  “应对人兽冲突时,基于管理而采取提前预防措施,能有效地降低肇事损失,减少成本。以奖励而非补偿的方式,也将更有可能激发社区的预警措施。”山水自然保护中心雪豹项目主任刘炎林说。
 
  解决三江源人兽冲突问题,应该突破民生保障的局限,短期内应该从生态保护的角度考虑,即以改变人对野生动物的负面态度、减少人对野生动物的报复性猎杀为目标,建立预警机制。
 
  在生态保护的视角下,短期内可以在人兽冲突较为激烈、肇事动物是珍稀动物的区域优先开展工作。按照报复性猎杀的轻重缓急来安排人兽冲突补偿工作,可以减少政府对于补偿资金的担忧,并在关键区域达成民生保障和生态保护的双赢。
 
  在具体工作上,应该创新保护模式,将牧民从保护的对立面转变为保护的主体,重塑牧民对野生动物的拥有感并使之能够从保护中获得收益。在短期内无法开展旅游等工作时,应该通过中央财政转移支付生态补偿。
 
  本文原载于1月8日《中国绿色时报》
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雪豹

近年来,人兽冲突逐渐成为热点问题,青海三江源区域也不例外。在三江源,人兽冲突具体表现为雪豹、棕熊、狼等伤害家畜、人以及破坏房屋等。如何尝试解决这一问题?

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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