文:本站原创 — 2015-6-5 15:12:32

守护澜沧江:民间力量的培养和链接

  ▲澜沧江之源(李小龙/摄)
 
  澜沧江守护行动
 
  澜沧江源区位于三江源地区,行政上包括青海省杂多县和囊谦县,这里汇集了独特的生物多样性和深厚的藏族文化。为探讨现代科学+传统文化的澜沧江源区生态保护模式, 2015年4月1日到4月3日,山水在玉树州八一职业技术学校的支持下,在玉树召开澜沧江保护基金项目青海区域(杂多、囊谦)能力建设培训会议,组织澜沧江项目青海区域的成员参与,并展示他们的项目,同时邀请专家学者及山水三江源团队成员分享他们的观点、知识和经验。
 
  ▲澜沧江地理源头吉富山(李小龙/摄)
 
  寺庙与社区,宗教信仰凝聚的保护主力
 
  澜沧江源区属于青藏高原,平均海拔超过4千米,被称为世界“第三极”。源区居民以藏族为主,藏区因其深厚的宗教信仰,出现了很多以民间环保人士和寺院为主的环保团队。包括囊谦县重要寺庙果切寺和苏莽寺,杂多县虫草第一乡苏鲁乡的三村之一多晓村,杂多县灾后重建的重要工程吉乃滩社区,雪豹重要栖息地的尕羊乡等。此外,也有部分学校、NGO以及农村合作社参与保护。
 
  藏区垃圾,文明产物何处安放?
 
  无论寺庙还是社区组织,垃圾是他们主要关注的问题。近年来,随着经济的发展,现代社会的产品大量进入藏区,产生数量巨大的垃圾,而这些垃圾的处理方式却远未跟上时代的发展,藏区垃圾处理问题成为澜沧江源区日益严重并受关注的问题之一。
 
  培训会上的项目介绍中我们得知,囊谦县苏莽寺从2008年以来就致力于本地垃圾的清理工作,为更持续地清理澜沧江上游河道周边的垃圾,苏莽寺计划建立寺院奖惩机制。杂多县苏鲁乡则选择有代表性的社区,将垃圾治理与社区水源管理结合起来开展工作。而位于杂多县的吉乃滩社区希望在开展垃圾分类的基础上,实现垃圾减量和可回收利用,并形成示范。
 
  ▲藏区人民有着深厚的宗教信仰(李小龙/摄)
 
  科学手段成为解决威胁的“利刃”
 
  除了垃圾问题,面对人兽冲突、水电矿产无序开发、生物多样性本底不清等威胁,用现代科学来解决是有效手段。培训会上,守护者们向大家展示了他们的想法和行动。
 
  面对高原异类——流浪藏狗在部分地区表现出对人和对生态的一些隐患,新兴环保组织青海雪境希望对流浪藏狗问题进行社区参与式研究,结合传统文化和科学调查,缓解人兽冲突。横断山研究会则致力于缓解保护和不合理开发之间的冲突,他们希望通过调研,指出不合理水电矿产开发的危害,给慎重决策赢得时间。
 
  相比冲突问题,尕羊乡巡护野生动物小组更关注的是雪豹本底不清的问题。雪豹是藏族传统文化中非常神圣的物种,他们希望在雪豹重要栖息地——尕羊乡的尕金雪山进行雪豹专项调查,获取本底数据,为保护决策提供科学依据。
 
  与雪豹类似,澜沧江源区珍稀藏药同样面临本底不清的问题。来自玉树州八一职业技术学校的阿春峰拟对澜沧江源头地区的藏药进行分布情况调查,同时收集民间非物质传统藏医药文化,为保护物种、合理开发、选育种植收集基础资料。
 
  ▲澜沧江源区雪豹栖息地(李小龙/摄)
 
  环境教育,联接传统文化和现代科学
 
  科学手段的重要性映射出当地环保人士科学知识的缺乏。人们对环境问题非常重视,但大部分人非专业人士,缺乏环保科学知识。面对这个问题,守护者们在培训会上展示了他们的解决之道:结合传统文化和现代科学开展环境教育。
 
  囊谦青年服务协会计划邀请专业的环保人士,给在地的环保组织和环保人士进行专业的环境教育培训,让他们拥有更加专业的知识和技能。郭切寺同样会邀请专业环保人士进行环境保护培训,但培训对象主要为寺院的僧人和堪布。
 
  除了环保人士和僧人以外,在学校开展针对学生的环境教育,以小手拉大手的方式提升环保意识,也是很好的环境教育方式。苏莽寺和萨呼腾镇中心寄校就希望在学校开展环境教育,以学校带动居民,改善当地生活环境。
 
  ▲小手拉大手(李小龙/摄)
 
  保护行动如何长久?
 
  不管是垃圾处理、评估监测还是环境教育,长久的行动离不开资金的持续支持,如何获得持续的保护资金?用可持续生计来反哺保护行动是一个很好的尝试。
 
  在培训会上,毛庄乡赛吾村介绍了他们的社区生态保护激励机制及可持续发展项目。该村妇女成立了藏族民间手工艺妇女生产合作社,制作并销售传统藏式手工艺品,一方面实现家庭增收改善生计,另一方面可以为巡山活动提供资金。
 
  乔美环保协会同样致力于解决当地人的生计,实现可持续发展和保护。协会不仅开展保护环境、野生动物和水源活动,还致力于加强社区建设。组织当地妇女和老人,参与生产市场接受的工艺品,既令本地资源得到有效利用,又令参与者得到报酬,同时弘扬当地传统文化。
 
  ▲村妇女在合作制作传统藏式手工艺品
  (年保玉则生态环境保护协会/供图)
 
  专家学者献计献策
 
  在会上,山水自然保护中心邀请各领域的专家学者,为澜沧江保护献计献策,构建保护智库。
 
  北京大学自然与社会研究中心的肖凌云博士介绍了当今地球生物多样性现状,并阐述了第六次生物大灭绝的人为因素及人类面临的挑战。山水自然保护中心技术总监田犎分享了社区保护项目的策略与案例。
 
  中国科学院西北高原生物研究所所长陈世龙分享了他们在三江源的研究成果,并对植被恢复、藏药资源调查方面的项目给予指导。山水自然保护中心的赵翔分享了云塔村垃圾处理案例,给垃圾处理相关项目一定借鉴。
 
  “乡村之眼”的旦增达吉分享了他们在乡村影像方面的经验和成果,介绍了用影像保护环境的模式。三江源国家级自然保护区的巴桑拉毛老师分享了三江源国家生态保护区现状。
 
  三江源生态环境保护协会会长扎西多杰以他在藏区多年的工作经验,分享了他在工作过程中的心得和体会。来自青海慈善基金会的柔卓老师主持项目规划管理培训,项目成员受益匪浅。
 
  ▲山水自然保护中心邀请各领域的专家学者
 
  三天培训会议,时间尚短;长期守护行动,来日方长。在培训会召开之前,大家在自己的家园默默地开展保护行动,彼此间并不熟悉。经过培训会上的机构介绍,大家发现原来自己并不孤独,在同一片草原上,还有很多同仁一道做着类似的保护行动。
 
  在未来的日子里,山水将继续联合各位专家学者,和在地守护者一起,守护澜沧江源区的蓝天、白云、草地和生灵,让这条发源于三江源,穿越西南山地,流经东南亚热带生物多样性热点地区的大江滋养当地,润泽下游。
 
  湄公河(澜沧江)是亚洲最重要的跨国水系之一,丰富的生物多样性为流域内七千万人提供了多种生态服务。然而近几十年来,流域内的生物多样性和生态系统服务在气候变化和对自然资源的过度开采下加速丧失。
 
  2014年6月,山水自然保护中心发起“澜沧江保护基金”赠款项目,对有兴趣在澜沧江流域开展生态与文化多样性保护工作的社区、教育或科研机构、民间组织\团体、社会企业提供资助、科学指导、能力建设、交流合作,并组建“澜沧江保护联盟”。“澜沧江守护行动”系列文章,将介绍部分入围项目,展示他们尚未广泛为人所知的守护行动。
 
  文:山水自然保护中心 李小龙
 
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自然学堂

澜沧江源区位于三江源地区,行政上包括青海省杂多县和囊谦县,这里汇集了独特的生物多样性和深厚的藏族文化。为了保护丰富的生态和文化多样性,山水与当地的伙伴们正一同探讨着现代科学与传统文化结合的保护模式。

项目团队

    项目支持伙伴

    关于

    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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